FAQ

Rocznik Administracji Publicznej

The Separation Between Refugees – Immigrants and their Children During Transportation

Data publikacji: 02.04.2024

2022 (8)

Rocznik Administracji Publicznej, 2022, s. 206 - 218

https://doi.org/10.4467/24497800RAP.22.011.16787

Autorzy

Antonia Stefania Quissa

Abstrakt

The family separation between immigrant – refugee parents and their children is a global phenomenon. This research is focused on the dissociation that is taking place during transportation from the countries of origin to receiving countries. Every year United States accept thousands of immigrants from Central America who are segregated under ‘zero-tolerance’ immigration policy (ZTP). However, the same issue afllicts refugees who are trying to cross the Central Mediterranean Sea to enter Europe. But then, United States and European Union established legislations and bills to prevent that kind of parting and to promote the family’s reconnection. The key strength is the impact of separation, as a toxic experience during childhood, is intolerable for all the members of family. Children experience trauma, which affects their mental and physical health. Additionally, parents develop depression, Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and become victims of suicide. Finally, family unity protects children’s lives and supports family’s integration in the host countries.

Keywords: family separation, family reunification, refugees, immigrants, children


Rozdzielanie uchodźców-imigrantów i ich dzieci podczas podróży

Rozdzielenie rodziców imigrantów – uchodźców z ich dziećmi jest zjawiskiem globalnym. Niniejsze badania koncentrują się na rozdzielaniu rodzin podczas podróży z krajów pochodzenia do krajów przyjmujących. Każdego roku Stany Zjednoczone przyjmują tysiące imigrantów z Ameryki Środkowej, którzy są segregowani w ramach polityki imigracyjnej „zero tolerancji” (ZTP). Ten sam problem dotyczy uchodźców, którzy próbują przekroczyć Morze Śródziemne, aby dostać się do Europy. Stany Zjednoczone i Unia Europejska opracowały przepisy i projekty ustaw, aby zapobiec tego rodzaju rozłąkom i wspierać ponowne połączenie rodzin. Kluczową kwestią jest traumatyczny wpływ separacji na poszczególnych członków rodziny. Dzieci doświadczają traumy, która wpływa na ich zdrowie psychiczne i fizyczne. Rodzice popadają w depresję, cierpią na zespół stresu pourazowego (PTSD), co może prowadzić nawet do samobójstw. Jedność rodziny chroni zatem życie dzieci i wspomaga integrację rodziny w krajach przyjmujących.

Bibliografia

Refugee Family Reunification: UNHCR’s Response to the European Commission Green Paper on the Right to Family Reunification of Third Country Nationals Living in the European Union [Internet], UNHCR Bureau for Europe, February 2012, [cited 2021 May 4] Available from: https://www.unhcr.org/4f54e3fb13.pdf

Baily CDR, Henderson SW, Taub AR, O’Shea G, Einhorn H, Verdeli H. The Mental Health Needs of Unaccompanied Immigrant Children: Lawyers’ Role as a Conduit to Services: 15.

A Guide to Children Arriving at the Border: Laws, Policies and Responses [Internet]. American Immigration Council. 2016 [cited 2021 May 4]. Available from: https:// www.americanimmigrationcouncil.org/research/guide-children-arriving-border-laws-policies-and-responses.

The U.S. Government’s 2018 Border Data Clearly Shows Why the Trump Administration is on the Wrong Track [Internet]. WOLA. [cited 2021 May 4]. Available from: https://www.wola.org/analysis/us-government-2018-border-data-trump-immigration-asylum-policy/ .

Data UNODC | [Internet]. [cited 2021 May 4]. Available from: https://dataunodc.un.org/

de la Peña CM, Pineda L, Punsky B. Working with Parents and Children Separated g the Impact of the Zero Tolerance Policy and beyond. dolesc Trauma. 2019 Jun; 12(2): 153–64.

Q&A: Trump Administration’s “Zero-Tolerance” Immigration Policy [Internet]. Human Rights Watch. 2018 [cited 2021 May 4]. Available from: https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/08/16/qa-trump-administrations-zero-tolerance-immigration-policy.

Paradoxes of Family Immigration Policy: Separation, Reorganization, and Reunification of Families under Current Immigration Laws. Enchautegui ME. 2015. Law & Policy. Wiley Online Library [Internet]. [cited 2021 May 4]. Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/lapo.12030.

Teicher MH. Childhood trauma and the enduring consequences of forcibly separating children from parents at the United States border. BMC Med. 2018 Aug 22; 16(1): 146.

Di Giovanni E. Separated Children’s Migration in the Mediterranean Sea. An Ethnohistorical Perspective. Coll Antropol. 2016 Sep; 40(3): 165–9.

Mediterranean Update – Migrant Deaths Rise to 3,329 in 2015 [Internet]. Internation- al Organization for Migration. 2015 [cited 2021 May 4]. Available from: https://www.iom.int/news/mediterranean-update-migrant-deaths-rise-3329-2015.

Fatal Journeys Volume 2: Identification and tracing of dead and missing migrants – IOM Online Bookstore [Internet]. [cited 2021 May 4]. Available from: https://publications.iom.int/books/fatal-journeys-volume-2-identification-and-tracing-dead-and-missing-migrants.

Weber L, Pickering S. Counting and Accounting for Deaths of Asylum Seekers en Route to Australia [Internet]. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network; 2014 [cited 2021 May 4]. Report No.: ID 2520383. Available from: https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2520383.

Children Come First, Intervento in Frontiera: Dossier I [Internet]. Resource Centre. [cited 2021 May 4]. Available from: https://resourcecentre.savethechildren.net/node/16169/pdf/children-come-first-intervento-frontiera.pdf.

Law 4368/2016, Article 33 on free access to health care services [Internet]. European Web Site on Integration. [cited 2021 May 4]. Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/migrant-integration/librarydoc/law-4368/2016-article-33-on-free-access-to-health-care-services.

Χωρισµόc νεογέννητωναπότιc µητέρεc λόγωέλλειψηc επαρκώνστοιχείωνταυτότηταc [Internet]. l).ικαιώµατατουπαιδιού. [cited 2021 May 4]. Available from: https://www.synigoros.gr:443/?i=childrens-rights.el.gonikosrolos.511648.

Greek Law No. 4554 of 18 July 2018 on the regulatory framework for the guardian-ship of unaccompanied minors [Internet]. European Web Site on Integration. [cited 2021 May 4]. Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/migrant-integration/librarydoc/greek-law-no-4554-of-18-july-2018-on-the-regulatory-framework-for-the-guardianship-of-unaccompanied-minors.

Velonaki VS, Ouissa A-S, Kampouroglou G. Separation of children from undocu- mented immigrant parents: From USA to Greece. Public Health Nurs Boston Mass. 2020 Jan; 37(1): 3–4.

OHCHR | Convention on the Rights of the Child [Internet]. [cited 2021 May 4]. Available from: https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/crc.aspx.

Treaties, States parties, and Commentaries – Geneva Convention (IV) on Civilians, rnet]. [cited 2021 May 4]. Available from: https://ihl-databases.icrc/ihl/INTRO/380.

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) [Internet]. Unicef UK. [cited 2021 May 4]. Available from: https://www.unicef.org.uk/what-we-do/un-convention-child-rights/.

ipa-world.org [Internet]. [cited 2021 May 4]. Available from: https://ipa-world.org/page.php?id=388.

AAP.org [Internet]. [cited 2021 May 4]. Available from:https://www.aap.org/en-us/Pages/Default.aspx.

Aggarwal NK. Protecting Health Rights of Migrant Minors in Violent Settings. Pediatrics [Internet]. 2019 Oct 1 [cited 2021 May 4]; 144(4). Available from: https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/144/4/e20183840.

Immigrant family separations must end, psychologist tells Congressional panel [Internet]. https://www.apa.org.[cited 2021 May 5]. Available from: https://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2019/02/immigrant-family-separations.

Refugees UNHC for. Refworld | Disrupted Flight: The Realities of Separated Refugee Families in the EU [Internet]. Refworld. [cited 2021 May 4]. Available from: https://www.refworld.org/docid/58514a054.html.

Delgado JR, Diaz LD, LaHuffman-Jackson R, Quion N, Walts K. Community-Based Trauma-Informed Care Following Immigrant Family Reunification: A Narrative Review. AcadPediatr. 2021 May 1; 21(4): 600–4.

Family Reunification [Internet]. Justice In Motion. [cited 2021 May 4]. Available from: https://www.justiceinmotion.org/family-reunification.

Trauma Guide [Internet]. [cited 2021 May 4]. Available from:https://www.aap.org/en-us/advocacy-and-policy/aap-health-initiatives/healthy-foster-care-america/Pages/Trauma-Guide.aspx.

Stange M, Stark B. The Ethical and Public Health Implications of Family Separation. J Law Med Ethics J Am Soc Law Med Ethics. 2019 Jun; 47(2_suppl): 91–4.

Migrant children’s health endangered by family separation at US border [Internet]. [cited 2021 May 4]. Available from:https://www.healio.com/news/pediatrics/20180814/migrant-childrens-health-endangered-by-family-separation-at-us-border.

Afulani PA, Torres JM, Sudhinaraset M, Asunka J. Transnational ties and the health of sub-Saharan African migrants: The moderating role of gender and family separation. Soc Sci Med 1982. 2016 Nov; 168: 63–71.

Working paper: Family unity in the context of migration [Internet]. [cited 2021 May from:https://www.unicef.org/documents/working-paper-familyty-context-migration.

Informacje

Informacje: Rocznik Administracji Publicznej, 2022, s. 206 - 218

Typ artykułu: Oryginalny artykuł naukowy

Tytuły:

Angielski:

The Separation Between Refugees – Immigrants and their Children During Transportation

Autorzy

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

Publikacja: 02.04.2024

Status artykułu: Otwarte __T_UNLOCK

Licencja: CC BY-NC-ND  ikona licencji

Udział procentowy autorów:

Antonia Stefania Quissa ( Autor) - 100%

Korekty artykułu:

-

Języki publikacji:

Angielski

Liczba wyświetleń: 2

Liczba pobrań: 1