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Problems of Forensic Sciences

Trends of the cannabis market in Poland over the last decade = Tendencje na rynku konopi indyjskich w ostatniej dekadzie w Polsce

Data publikacji: 08.05.2024

Problems of Forensic Sciences (Z Zagadnień Nauk Sądowych), 2023, 136, s. 307 - 319

https://doi.org/10.4467/12307483PFS.23.018.19625

Autorzy

,
Karolina Masier
Instytut Ekspertyz Sądowych im. Prof. dra Jana Sehna w Krakowie, Kraków
https://orcid.org/0009-0007-5248-7569 Orcid
Kontakt z autorem
Wszystkie publikacje autora →
,
Karolina Sekuła
Instytut Ekspertyz Sądowych im. Prof. dra Jana Sehna w Krakowie, Kraków
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8061-9388 Orcid
Wszystkie publikacje autora →
,
Bogumiła Byrska
Instytut Ekspertyz Sądowych im. Prof. dra Jana Sehna w Krakowie, Kraków
https://orcid.org/0009-0005-6036-5882 Orcid
Wszystkie publikacje autora →
,
Roman Stanaszek
Instytut Ekspertyz Sądowych im. Prof. dra Jana Sehna w Krakowie, Kraków
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6864-6858 Orcid
Wszystkie publikacje autora →
Wioleta Wrzesień-Tokarczyk
Instytut Ekspertyz Sądowych im. Prof. dra Jana Sehna w Krakowie, Kraków
https://orcid.org/0009-0001-8594-2982 Orcid
Wszystkie publikacje autora →

Abstrakt

Cannabis is the most widely used drug. in recent years, interest in cannabis has grown significantly. over the last decade, the number of cannabis users worldwide has increased by almost 21%, reaching approximately 219 million people in 2021. Can- nabis cultivation covers practically all regions of the world. In recent years, 151 countries have reported cannabis cultivation, both outdoors and indoors. The increased growth of the latter is particularly observed in North America and Europe. Global data shows that in 2021, 5,226 tons of marihuana and 2,014 tons of hashish were confiscated. an increase in seizures of can- nabis products is observed in Europe and Poland. Another trend concerns the increasing content of the psychoactive substance Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) in cannabis plants. According to UNODC data, over the last 25 years there has been a 4-fold increase in the content of Δ9-THc in cannabis. over the last decade, the average content of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in marihua- na seized in europe has increased approximately twice, and in hashish three times.

The aim of this work is to assess potential changes in the content of the main psychoactive ingredients in cannabis in Poland in the last decade (2012–2022), based on expert opinions developed by the Institute of Forensic research in Kraków. The conduct- ed analyses confirmed the trends observed around the world. in the last ten years, the number of cases in which the drug-type cannabis was detected increased from 5.3% to 68.4% of total number of illicit drug cases examined for the presence of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances and new psychoactive substances. an increasing trend in the content of Δ9-THC in the drug-type cannabis was also noted. over the last decade, the average total content of Δ9-THC increased almost three times and in 2022 reached 12%. This is due to the growth of cannabis cultivation in Europe, carried out using the technique known as sinsemilla, genetic modifications, as well as the appearance on the market of the feminized cannabis seeds.

Bibliografia

  1. Chandra, S., Radwan, M. M., Majumdar, C. G., Church, J. C., Freeman, T. P., ElSohly, M. A. (2019). New trends in cannabis potency in USA and Europe during the last decade (2008–2017). European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 269(1), 5–15.
  2. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (2019). Developments in the European cannabis market. Retrieved 20 November 2023 from https://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/emcdda-papers/developments-in-the-european-cannabis-market_en
  3. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and Europol (2022). EU Drug Market: Cannabis – In-depth analysis. Retrieved 20 November 2023 from https://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/eu-drugmarkets/cannabis_en
  4. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (2023). European Drug Report 2023: Trends and Developments. Retrieved 20 November 2023 from https://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/european-drug-report/2023_en
  5. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2022a). Recommended methods for the identification and analysis of cannabis and cannabis products. Manual for use by national drug analysis laboratories. Retrieved 20 November 2023 from https://www.unodc.org/documents/scientific/Recommended_methods_for_the_Identification_and_Analysis_of_Cannabis_and_Cannabis_products.pdf
  6. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2022b) World Drug Report 2022. Retrieved 20 November 2023 from https://www.unodc.org/res/wdr2022/MS/WDR22_Booklet_1.pdf
  7. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2023). World Drug Report 2023. Retrieved 20 November 2023 from https://www.unodc.org/res/WDR-2023/WDR23_Exsum_fin_DP.pdf
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Informacje

Informacje: Problems of Forensic Sciences (Z Zagadnień Nauk Sądowych), 2023, s. 307 - 319

Typ artykułu: Oryginalny artykuł naukowy

Tytuły:

Polski: Trends of the cannabis market in Poland over the last decade = Tendencje na rynku konopi indyjskich w ostatniej dekadzie w Polsce

Autorzy

https://orcid.org/0009-0007-5248-7569

Karolina Masier
Instytut Ekspertyz Sądowych im. Prof. dra Jana Sehna w Krakowie, Kraków
https://orcid.org/0009-0007-5248-7569 Orcid
Kontakt z autorem
Wszystkie publikacje autora →

Instytut Ekspertyz Sądowych im. Prof. dra Jana Sehna w Krakowie, Kraków

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8061-9388

Karolina Sekuła
Instytut Ekspertyz Sądowych im. Prof. dra Jana Sehna w Krakowie, Kraków
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8061-9388 Orcid
Wszystkie publikacje autora →

Instytut Ekspertyz Sądowych im. Prof. dra Jana Sehna w Krakowie, Kraków

https://orcid.org/0009-0005-6036-5882

Bogumiła Byrska
Instytut Ekspertyz Sądowych im. Prof. dra Jana Sehna w Krakowie, Kraków
https://orcid.org/0009-0005-6036-5882 Orcid
Wszystkie publikacje autora →

Instytut Ekspertyz Sądowych im. Prof. dra Jana Sehna w Krakowie, Kraków

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6864-6858

Roman Stanaszek
Instytut Ekspertyz Sądowych im. Prof. dra Jana Sehna w Krakowie, Kraków
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6864-6858 Orcid
Wszystkie publikacje autora →

Instytut Ekspertyz Sądowych im. Prof. dra Jana Sehna w Krakowie, Kraków

https://orcid.org/0009-0001-8594-2982

Wioleta Wrzesień-Tokarczyk
Instytut Ekspertyz Sądowych im. Prof. dra Jana Sehna w Krakowie, Kraków
https://orcid.org/0009-0001-8594-2982 Orcid
Wszystkie publikacje autora →

Instytut Ekspertyz Sądowych im. Prof. dra Jana Sehna w Krakowie, Kraków

Publikacja: 08.05.2024

Otrzymano: 11.12.2023

Zaakceptowano: 27.01.2024

Status artykułu: Otwarte __T_UNLOCK

Licencja: CC BY-NC-ND  ikona licencji

Prawa autorskie:

© Copyright by the Prof. Dr Jan Sehn Institute of Forensic Research in Kraków, Kraków 2023

Udział procentowy autorów:

Karolina Masier (Autor) - 20%
Karolina Sekuła (Autor) - 20%
Bogumiła Byrska (Autor) - 20%
Roman Stanaszek (Autor) - 20%
Wioleta Wrzesień-Tokarczyk (Autor) - 20%

Korekty artykułu:

-

Języki publikacji:

Angielski, Polski

Liczba wyświetleń: 99

Liczba pobrań: 49