Problems of Forensic Sciences

Kick starting method development for hemp analysis using cannabis as equivalent material

Data publikacji: 08.05.2023

Problems of Forensic Sciences (Z Zagadnień Nauk Sądowych), 2022, 132, s. 271 - 283



Kar-Weng Chan
Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, Malezja
Wszystkie publikacje autora →


Cannabis (or marijuana) is detrimental to humans because of its psychoactive effects. The plant materials of this genus have however been credited with its vast nutritional values. As its benefits outweigh harmful effects, some countries have legalized the use of fiber-type cannabis – a plant product called hemp. Hemp is deemed to contain delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) below the legal limit (e.g. <0.3% THC) and thus less psychoactive. It is safe to use hemp if it contains no or little THC. So the enforcement bodies must check its level to assure safety prior to sales. Notwithstanding this, hemp cultivation as well as consumption is not lawful in Malaysia. But recently, federal government has shown interest in growing and commercializing hemp. In this regard, an analytical method for identifying hemp must be developed. In the absence of hemp, a liquid chromatographic method was developed using cannabis plants as equivalent materials to mimic the target plant matrix. The validation procedure demonstrated that the method was able to achieve good selectivity with a detection limit =0.0005 mg/mL (or 0.008%) THC. It was precise (imprecision <3%) and accurate (recovery =98.76%) to quantify THC. The detector response was linear up to 0.05 mg/mL (0.8%) THC. This method is cheap and simple for routine application.


1. Ameri, A. (1999). The effects of cannabinoids on the brain. Progress in Neurobiology, 58(4), 315–348.

2. Berman, P., Futoran, K., Lewitus, G. M., Mukha, D., Benami, M., Shlomi, T., Meiri, D. (2018). A new ESILC/MS approach for comprehensive metabolic profiling of phytocannabinoids in Cannabis. Scientific Reports, 8,14280. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-32651-4. PMID: 30250104; PMCID: PMC6155167.

3. Bosy, T. Z., Cole, K. A. (2000). Consumption an quantitation of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in commercially available hemp seed oil products. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 24(7), 562–566.

4. Burton, R. A., Andres, M., Cole, M., Cowley, J. M., Augustin, M. A. (2022). Industrial hemp seed: from the field to value-added food ingredients. Journal of Cannabis Research, 4, 45. doi: 10.1186/s42238-022-00156-7.

5. Chan, K. W. (2014). Validating a gas chromatography-mass spectrometric method and sample classification procedure for cannabis profiling using cannabinoids from case samples. Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, 46(4), 424–432.

6. Fodor, B., Molnár-Perl, I. (2017). The role of derivatization techniques in the analysis of plant cannabinoids by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 95, 149–158.

7. Hanuš, L. O., Meyer, S. M., Muñoz, E., Taglialatela-Scafati, O., Appendino, G. (2016). Phytocannabinoids: A unified critical inventory. Natural Product Reports, 33, 1357–1392.

8. Hazekamp, A., Peltenburg, A., Verpoorte, R., Giroud, C. (2005). Chromatographic and spectroscopic data of cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa L. Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, 28, 2361–2382.

9. Hemphill, J. K., Turner, J. C., Mahlberg, P. G. (1980). Cannabinoid content of individual plant organs from different geographical strains of Cannabis sativa L. Journal of Natural Products, 43(1), 112–122.

10. Iftikhar, A., Zafar, U., Ahmed, W., Shabbir, M. A., Sameen, A., Sahar, A., Bhat, Z. F., Kowalczewski, P. Ł., Jarzębski, M., Aadil, R. M. (2021). Applications of Cannabis sativa L. in food and its therapeutic potential: From a prohibited drug to a nutritional supplement. Molecules, 26(24), 7699. doi: 10.3390/molecules26247699.

11. Lehmann, T., Sager, F., Brenneisen, R. (1997). Excretion of cannabinoids in urine after ingestion of cannabis seed oil. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 21, 373–375.

12. Leizer, C., Ribnicky, D., Poulev, A., Dushenkov, S., Raskin, I. (2000). The composition of hemp seed oil and its potential as an important source of nutrition. Journal of Nutraceuticals, Functional & Medical Foods, 2, 35–53.

13. NIDA (2021). What are marijuana’s effects? Retrieved 2022, May 5 from https://nida.nih.gov/publications/research-reports/marijuana/what-are-marijuana-effects.

14. Prociuk, M. A., Edel, A. L., Richard, M. N., Gavel, N. T., Ander, B. P., Dupasquier, C. M., Pierce, G. N. (2008). Cholesterol-induced stimulation of platelet aggregation is prevented by a hempseed-enriched diet. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 86, 153–159.

15. Raharjo, T. J., Verpoorte, R. (2004). Methods for the analysis of cannabinoids in biological materials: A review. Phytochemical Analysis, 15, 79–94.

16. Richard, M. N., Ganguly, R., Steigerwald, S. N., Al-Khalifa, A., Pierce, G. N. (2007). Dietary hemp seed reduces platelet aggregation. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 5, 424–425.

17. Rupasinghe, H. P. V., Davis, A., Kumar, S. K., Murray, B., Zheljazkov, V. D. (2020). Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa) as an emerging source for value-added functional food ingredients and nutraceuticals. Molecules, 25(18), 4078. doi: 10.3390/molecules25184078.

18. Vonapartis, E., Aubin, M. P., Seguin, P., Mustafa, A, F., Charron, J. B. (2015). Seed composition of ten industrial hemp cultivars approved for production in Canada. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 39, 8–12.

19. WebMD (2020). Hemp: Health benefits, nutrition, and uses. Retrieved 2022, May 5 from https://www.webmd.com/diet/hemp-health-benefits-nutrition-uses#1.


Informacje: Problems of Forensic Sciences (Z Zagadnień Nauk Sądowych), 2022, s. 271 - 283

Typ artykułu: Oryginalny artykuł naukowy



Kick starting method development for hemp analysis using cannabis as equivalent material


Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, Malezja

Publikacja: 08.05.2023

Otrzymano: 10.10.2022

Zaakceptowano: 09.01.2023

Status artykułu: Otwarte __T_UNLOCK

Licencja: CC BY-NC-ND  ikona licencji

Udział procentowy autorów:

Kar-Weng Chan (Autor) - 100%

Korekty artykułu:


Języki publikacji:

Angielski, Polski

Liczba wyświetleń: 198

Liczba pobrań: 239

Sugerowane cytowania: Vancouver

Chan K.
Kick starting method development for hemp analysis using cannabis as equivalent material
. Problems of Forensic Sciences (Z Zagadnień Nauk Sądowych). 2023;2022 (132): 271-283