FAQ

Problems of Forensic Sciences

Cognitive distortions and recidivism in sexual offenders against children

Data publikacji: 23.06.2022

Problems of Forensic Sciences (Z Zagadnień Nauk Sądowych), 2021, 128, s. 191 - 209

https://doi.org/10.4467/12307483PFS.21.011.15881

Autorzy

,
Filip Szumski
Wydział Psychologii i Kognitywistyki, Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza, Poznań
Wszystkie publikacje autora →
Dominika Bartoszak
Wydział Psychologii i Kognitywistyki, Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza, Poznań
Wszystkie publikacje autora →

Abstrakt

Aim. The purpose of the study was to examine if cognitive distortions of various content presented by sexual offenders against children are related with sexual recidivism risk and actual recidivism. To extend the reliability of the interpretation of its results, differences in the number of cognitive distortions exhibited by sexual offenders against children and controls and relation between cognitive distortions measured explicitly and implicitly are also examined.

Method. 64 sexual offenders against children, 46 sexual offenders against adults, 74 nonsexual violent offenders, and 68 non-offending males participated in the study. Explicit and implicit cognitive distortions were measured by two newly created instruments. Sexual recidivism risk were assessed using Static-99. Data on conviction and actual recidivism were drawn from penitentiary files.

Results. Implicit and explicit cognitive distortions were mostly unrelated. Offenders showed more cognitive distortions than non-offending males. Cognitive distortions were not associated with static sexual recidivism risk. In explicit measurement sexual recidivists showed more cognitive distortions of all types with sexual content than non-recidivists.

Conclusion. Results of the study suggests that cognitive distortions with sexual content are  criminogenic need. Thus, tackling them in treatment shall be contemplated.

Bibliografia

1. Abel, G. G., Becker, J. V., Cunningham-Rathner, J. (1984). Complications, consent, and cognitions in sex between children and adults. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 7(1), 89–103. DOI: 10.1016/0160-2527(84)90008-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-2527(84)90008-6.
2. Abel, G. G., Gore, D. K., Holland, C. L., Camp, N., Becker, J. V., Rathner, J. (1989). The measurement of the cognitive distortions of child molesters. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 2(2), 135–152. DOI: 10.1007/BF00851319. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00851319.
3. Andrews, D. A., Bonta, J., Hoge, R. D. (1990). Classification for effective rehabilitation: Rediscovering psychology. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 17(1), 19–52. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-5690-2_343. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5690-2_343.
4. Beck, A. T. (1963). Thinking and depression. I. Idiosyncratic content and cognitive distortions. Archives of General Psychiatry, 9(4), 324–333. DOI: 10.1001/ archpsyc.1963.01720160014002.
5. Beech, A. R., Bartels, R. M., Dixon, L. (2013). Assessment and treatment of distorted schemas in sexual offenders. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 14(1), 54–66. DOI: 10.1177/1524838012463970. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838012463970.
6. Bonta, J., Andrews, D. A. (2017). The psychology of criminal conduct (6th ed.). New York, London: Routledge.
7. Brouillette-Alarie, S., Babchishin, K. M., Hanson, R. K., Helmus, L. M. (2016). Latent constructs of the Static- 99R and Static-2002R: A three-factor solution. Assessment, 23(1), 96–111. DOI: 10.1177/1073191114568114. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191114568114.
8. Bumby, K. M. (1996) Assessing the cognitive distortions of child molesters and rapists: Development and validation of the MOLEST and RAPE Scales. Sexual Abuse, 8, 37–54. DOI: 10.1177/107906329600800105. https://doi.org/10.1177/107906329600800105.
9. Collie, R. M., Vess, J., Murdoch, S. (2007). Violence-related cognition: Current research. (In) T. A. Gannon, T. Ward, A. R. Beech, D. Fisher (Eds.), Aggressive offenders’ cognition: Theory, research and practice (pp. 179–197). John Wiley & Sons Ltd. DOI: 10.1002/9780470746295.ch9. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470746295.ch9.
10. Gannon, T. A. (2006). Increasing honest responding on cognitive distortions in child molesters: the bogus pipeline procedure. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21(3), 358–375. DOI: 10.1177/0886260505282887. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260505282887.
11. Gawronski, B., Bodenhausen, G. V. (2006). Associative and propositional processes in evaluation: An integrative review of implicit and explicit attitude change. Psychological Bulletin, 132(5), 692–731. DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.132.5.692. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.132.5.692.
12. Gray, N. S., Brown, A. S., MacCulloch, M. J., Smith, J., Snowden, R. J. (2005). An implicit test of the associations between children and sex in pedophiles. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114(2), 304–308. DOI: 10.1037/0021-843X.114.2.304. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.114.2.304.
13. Hanson, R. K., Bussière, M. T. (1998). Predicting relapse: a meta-analysis of sexual offender recidivism studies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(2), 348–362. DOI: 10.1037/0022-006X.66.2.348. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.66.2.348.
14. Hanson, R. K., Gizzarelli, R., Scott, H. (1994). The attitudes of incest offenders: Sexual entitlement and acceptance of sex with children. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 21(2), 187–202. DOI: 10.1177/0093854894021002001. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854894021002001.
15. Hanson, R. K., Morton-Bourgon, K. E. (2005). The characteristics of persistent sexual offenders: A meta-analysis of recidivism studies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(6), 1154–1163. DOI: 10.1037/0022-006X.73.6.1154. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.73.6.1154.
16. Helmus, L., Hanson, R. K., Babchishin, K. M., Mann, R. E. (2013). Attitudes supportive of sexual offending predict recidivism: A meta-analysis. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 14(1), 34–53. DOI: 10.1177/1524838012462244. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838012462244.
17. Helmus, L. M., Hanson, R. K., Murrie, D. C., Zabarauckas, C. L. (2021). Field validity of Static-99R and STABLE-2007 with 4,433 men serving sentences for sexual offences in British Columbia: New findings and meta-analysis. Psychological Assessment, 33(7), 581–595. DOI: 10.1037/pas0001010. https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0001010.
18. Hofmann, W., Gawronski, B., Gschwendner, T., Le, H., Schmitt, M. (2005). A meta-analysis on the correlation between the implicit association test and explicit self-report measures. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(10), 1369–1385. DOI: 10.1177/0146167205275613. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167205275613.
19. Howitt, D., Sheldon, K. (2007) The role of cognitive distortions in paedophilic offending: Internet and contact offenders compared. Psychology, Crime & Law, 13(5), 469–86. DOI: 10.1080/10683160601060564. https://doi.org/10.1080/10683160601060564.
20. Keown, K., Gannon, T. A., Ward, T. (2010). What’s in a measure? A multi-method study of child sexual offenders’ beliefs. Psychology, Crime & Law, 16(1–2), 125–43. DOI: 10.1080/10683160802622022. https://doi.org/10.1080/10683160802622022.
21. Knight, K., Garner, B. R., Simpson, D. D., Morey, J. T., Flynn, P. M. (2006). An assessment for criminal thinking. Crime & Delinquency, 52(1), 159–77. DOI: 10.1177/0011128705281749. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011128705281749.
22. Lösel, F., Schmucker, M. (2005). The effectiveness of treatment for sexual offenders: A comprehensive meta- analysis. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1, 117–146. DOI: 10.1007/s11292-004-6466-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11292-004-6466-7.
23. McGrath, M., Cann, S., Konopasky, R. (1998). New measures of defensiveness, empathy, and cognitive distortions for sexual offenders against children. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 10, 25–36. DOI: 10.1177/107906329801000104. https://doi.org/10.1177/107906329801000104.
24. Mihailides, S., Devilly, G. J., Ward, T. (2004). Implicit cognitive distortions and sexual offending. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 16(4), 333–350. DOI: 10.1177/107906320401600406. https://doi.org/10.1177/107906320401600406.
25. Mills, J. F., Kroner, D. G., Hemmati, T. (2004). The Measures of Criminal Attitudes and Associates (MCAA): the prediction of general and violent recidivism. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 31(6), 717–733. DOI: 10.1177/0093854804268755. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854804268755.
26. Novaco, R. W., Welsh, W. N. (1989). Anger disturbances: Cognitive mediation and clinical prescriptions. (In) K. Howells, C. R. Hollin (Eds), Clinical approaches to violence (pp. 39–60). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
27. Nunes, K. L., Firestone, P., Baldwin, M. W. (2007). Indirect assessment of cognitions of child sexual abusers with the Implicit Association Test. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34, 454–475. DOI: 10.1177/0093854806291703. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854806291703.
28. O lver, M. E., Klepfisz, G., Stockdale, K. C., Kingston, D. A., Nicholaichuk, T. P., Wong, S. C. P. (2016). Some notes on the validation of VRS-SO static scores. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 22(2), 147–60. DOI: 10.1080/13552600.2015.1116625. https://doi.org/10.1080/13552600.2015.1116625.
29. Ó Ciardha, C. (2011). A theoretical framework for understanding deviant sexual interest and cognitive distortions as overlapping constructs contributing to sexual offending against children. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 16, 493–502. DOI:10. 1016/j.avb.2011.05.001.
30. Ó Ciardha, C., Ward, T. (2013). Theories of cognitive distortions in sexual offending: What the current research tells us. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 14(1), 5–21. DOI: 10.1177/1524838012467856. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838012467856.
31. Pervan, S., Hunter, M. (2007). Cognitive distortions and social self-esteem in sexual offenders. Applied Psychology in Criminal Justice, 3(1), 75–91. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?- doi=10.1.1.585.8480&rep=rep1&type=pdf.
32. Phenix, A., Helmus, L. M., Hanson, R. K. (2016). Static-99R and Static-2002R evaluators’ workbook. Retrived from http://www.static99.org/pdfdocs/Evaluators_Workbook_2016-10-19.pdf.
33. Quesada, S. P., Calkins, C., Jeglic, E. L. (2014). An examination of the interrater reliability between practitioners and researchers on the Static-99. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 58(11), 1364–1375. DOI: 10.1177/0306624X13495504. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X13495504.
34. Scurich, N., John, R. S. (2019). The dark figure of sexual recidivism. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 37(2), 158–175. DOI: 10.1002/bsl.2400. 
35. Simourd, D. J. (1997). The Criminal Sentiments Scale-Modified and Pride in Delinquency scale: Psychometric properties and construct validity of two measures of criminal attitudes. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 24(1), 52–70. DOI: 10.1177/0093854897024001004. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854897024001004.
36. Szumski, F., Bartels, R. M., Beech, A., Fisher, D. L. (2018). Distorted cognition related to male sexual offending: the multi-mechanism theory of cognitive distortions (MMT-CD). Aggression and Violent Behavior, 39, 139–151. DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2018.02.001. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2018.02.001.
37. Thornton, D., Laws, R. D. (2009). Cognitive approaches to the assessment of sexual interest in sexual offenders. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
38. Thornton, D. (2002). Constructing and testing a framework for dynamic risk assessment. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 14(2), 139–153. DOI: 10.1177/107906320201400205. https://doi.org/10.1177/107906320201400205.
39. Tierney, D. W., McCabe, M. P. (2001). An evaluation of self-report measures of cognitive distortions and empathy among Australian sex offenders. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 30(5), 495–519. DOI: 10.1023/A:1010239217517. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010239217517.
40. Tully, R. J., Chou, S., Browne, K. D. (2013). A systematic review on the effectiveness of sex offender risk assessment tools in predicting sexual recidivism of adult male sex offenders. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(2), 287–316. DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2012.12.002. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2012.12.002.
41. Ward, T. (2009). The extended mind theory of cognitive distortions in sex offenders. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 15(3), 247–59. DOI: 10.1080/13552600903263087. https://doi.org/10.1080/13552600903263087.
42. Ward, T., Casey, A. (2010). Extending the mind into the world: A new theory of cognitive distortions in sex offenders. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 15(1), 49–58. DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2009.08.002. 43. Ward, T., Keenan, T. (1999). Child molesters’ implicit theories. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 14(8), 821–838. DOI: 10.1177/088626099014008003. https://doi.org/10.1177/088626099014008003.

Informacje

Informacje: Problems of Forensic Sciences (Z Zagadnień Nauk Sądowych), 2021, s. 191 - 209

Typ artykułu: Oryginalny artykuł naukowy

Tytuły:

Angielski:

Cognitive distortions and recidivism in sexual offenders against children

Autorzy

Wydział Psychologii i Kognitywistyki, Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza, Poznań

Wydział Psychologii i Kognitywistyki, Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza, Poznań

Publikacja: 23.06.2022

Otrzymano: 15.02.2022

Zaakceptowano: 15.05.2022

Status artykułu: Otwarte __T_UNLOCK

Licencja: CC BY-NC-ND  ikona licencji

Udział procentowy autorów:

Filip Szumski (Autor) - 50%
Dominika Bartoszak (Autor) - 50%

Korekty artykułu:

-

Języki publikacji:

Angielski, Polski

Liczba wyświetleń: 607

Liczba pobrań: 344