Rocznik Kognitywistyczny

„Sunny side is up“, but is the cloudy side down? Znaczenie wymiaru wertykalnego w konceptualizacji emocji

Data publikacji: 26.11.2014

Rocznik Kognitywistyczny, 2014, Tom 7, s. 43 - 57



Marek Muszyński
Instytut Socjologii, Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie, ul. Grodzka 52, 31-044 Kraków
, Polska
Wszystkie publikacje autora →
Joanna Durlik
Instytut Psychologii, Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie, ul. Ingardena 6, 30-060 Kraków
Wszystkie publikacje autora →
Marcin Bukowski
Instytut Psychologii, Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie, ul. Ingardena 6, 30-060 Kraków
Wszystkie publikacje autora →


One of the key research areas in the embodied cognition field is role of metaphors in creating abstract notions. One of such metaphors is vertical dimension (UP-DOWN) used e.g. for conceptualising positive and/or negative emotions. Its importance has been confirmed by many empirical findings, but some of them arouse methodological concerns regarding the stimuli selection and the level to which observed patterns are universal. The main goal of the present study was to replicate findings of one of the most influential experiments in the field. Its results pointed that positive stimuli are processed faster when presented on the top of the screen while negative ones are processed faster when presented on the bottom. The results of our study yielded a slightly different pattern: positive stimuli were indeed processed faster on top of the screen, but we did not replicate faster processing of negative stimuli on the bottom of the screen. Possible explanations of such a pattern of results were discussed, along with ideas for follow up studies.



Adams F. (2010). Embodied cognition. „Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences” 9, s. 619–628.

Anooshian J.L., Hertel P.T. (1994). Emotionality in free recall: Language specificity in bilingual memory. „Cognition and Emotion” 8, s. 503–514.

Barsalou L.W. (1999). Perceptual symbol systems. „Behavioral and Brain Sciences” 22, s. 577–660.

Boot I., Pecher D. (2010). Similarity is closeness: Metaphorical mapping in a perceptual task. „Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology” 63, s. 942–954.

Brysbaert M. (1996). Word frequency affects naming latency in Dutch when age of acquisition is controlled. „European Journal of Cognitive Psychology” 8, s. 185–193.

Buss A.H., Perry M. (1992). The aggression questionnaire. „Journal of Personality and Social Psychology” 63, s. 452–459.

Carretié L., Hinojosa J.A., Albert J., López-Martín S., de la Gándara B.S., Igoa J.M., Sotillo M. (2008). Modulation of ongoing cognitive processes by emotionally intense words. „Psychophysiology” 45, s. 188–196.

Dupont W.D., Plummer W.D. (1998). Power and sample size calculations for studies involving linear regression. „Controlled Clinical Trials” 19, s. 589–601.

Forster K.I., Forster J.C. (2003). DMDX: A Windows display program with millisecond accuracy. „Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers” 35 (1), s. 116–124.

Gable, P., Harmon-Jones E. (2010). The motivational dimensional model of affect: Implications for breadth of attention, memory, and cognitive categorisation. „Cognition and Emotion” 24 (2), s. 322–337.

Gerevich J., Bácskai E., Czobor P. (2007). Thegeneralizability of the Buss-Perry aggression questionnaire. „International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research” 16 (3), s. 124–136.

Gibbs R.W. (2008). Images schemas in conceptual development: What happened to the body? „Philosophical Psychology” 21, s. 231–239.

Glenberg A.M., Kaschak M.P. (2002). Grounding language in action. „Psychonomic Bulletin & Review” 9, s. 558–565.

Gotlib I.H., Joormann J. (2010). Cognition and depression: Current status and future directions. „Annual Review of Clinical Psychology” 6, s. 285–312.

Hinojosa J.A., Carretié L., Valcárcel M.A., Méndez-Bértolo C., Pozo M.A. (2009). Electrophysiological differences in the processing of affective information in words and pictures. „Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience” 9, s. 173–189.

Hinojosa J.A., Méndez-Bértolo C., Pozo M.A. (2010). Looking at emotional words is not the same as reading emotional words: Behavioral and neural correlates. „Psychophysiology” 47, s. 748–757.

Johnson M. (1987). The Body in the MindThe Bodily Basis of Meaning, Imagination and Reason. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Kanske P., Kotz S.A. (2007). Concreteness in emotional words: ERP evidence from a hemifield study. „Brain Research” 1148, s. 138–148.

Kerns J.G., Cohen J.D., MacDonald A.W., Cho R.Y., Stenger V.A., Carter C.S. (2004). Anterior cingulate conflict monitoring and adjustments in control. „Science” 303, s. 1023–1026.

Lakoff G., Johnson M. (1999). Philosophy in the flesh: The embodied mind and its challenges to western thought. New York: Basic Books.

Mahon B.Z., Caramazza A. (2008). A critical look at the embodied cognition hypothesis and a new proposal for grounding conceptual content. „Journal of Physiology-Paris” 102, s. 59–70.

Mandera P., Keuleers E., Wodniecka Z., Brysbaert M. (2014). Subtlex-pl: subtitle-based word frequency estimates for Polish. „Behavior Research Methods”. doi: 10.3758/s13428-014-0489-4 (online publication).

Matsumoto D., Juang L. (2007). Psychologia międzykulturowa. Gdańsk: Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne.

Meier B.P., Robinson M.D. (2006). Does “feeling down” mean seeing down?: Depressive symptoms and vertical selective attention. „Journal of Research in Personality” 40, s. 451–461.

Meier B.P., Robinson M.D. (2005). The Metaphorical representation of affect. „Metaphor and symbol” 20 (4), s. 239–257.

Meier B.P., Robinson M.D. (2004). Why the sunny side is up. Associations between affect and vertical position. „Psychological Science” 15 (4), s. 243–247.

Méndez-Bértolo C., Pozo M.A., Hinojosa J.A. (2011). Word frequency modulates the processing of emotional words: Convergent behavioral and electrophysiological data. „Neuroscience Letters” 494, s. 250–254.

Ohman A., Flykt A., Esteves F. (2001). Emotion drives attention: detecting the snake in the grass. „Journal of Experimental Psychology: General” 130, s. 466–478.

Pecher D., Boot I., Van Dantzig S. (2011). Abstract concepts: Sensory-motor grounding, metaphors, and beyond [w:] B. Ross (red.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, vol. 54 (s. 217–248). Burlington: Academic Press.

Pecher D., Zeelenberg R., Barsalou L.W. (2003). Verifying different-modality properties for concepts produces switching costs. „Psychological Science” 14, s. 119–124.

Posner M.I., Cohen Y. (1984). Components of visual orienting [w:] H. Bouma, D. Bouwhuis (red.), Attention and Performance X: Control of Language Processes (s. 531–56). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Ratcliff R. (1993). Methods for dealing with reaction time outliers. „Psychological Bulletin” 114 (3), s. 510–532.

Robinson M.D., Wilkowski B.M., Meier B.P., Moeller S.K., Fetterman A.K. (2012). Counting to ten milliseconds: Low-anger, but not highanger, individuals pause following negative evaluations. „Cognition and Emotion” 26 (2), s. 261–281.

Schubert T.W. (2005). Your Highness: Vertical Positions as Perceptual Symbols of Power. „Journal of Personality and Social Psychology” 89, s. 1–21.

Smith C.A., Ellsworth P.C. (1985). Patterns of cognitive appraisal in emotion. „Journal of Personality and Social Psychology” 48 (4), s. 813–838.

Sutton T.M. (2010). The influence of emotion on attention: Examining the processing of negative and positive emotion words in the dot probe task. Niepublikowana praca doktorska. Albany: State University of New York at Albany.

Sutton T.M., Altarriba J., Gianico J.L., Basnight-Brown D.M. (2007). The automatic access of emotion: Emotional Stroop effects in Spanish-English bilingual speakers. „Cognition and Emotion” 21 (5), s. 1077–1090.

Talmy L. (1988). Force dynamics in language and cognition. „Cognitive Science” 12, s. 49–100.

Tzelgov J., Henik A., Leiser D. (1990). Controlling the Stroop interference: Evidence from a bilingual task. „Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition” 16 (5), s. 760–771.

Vogt J., De Houwer J., Koster E.H.W., Van Damme S., Crombez G. (2010). Allocation of spatial attention to emotional stimuli depends upon arousal and not valence. „Emotion” 8 (6), s. 880–885.

West W.C., Holcomb P.J. (2002). Event-related potentials during discourse-level semantic integration of complex pictures. „Brain Research. Cognitive Brain Research” 13 (3), s. 363–375.

Wicherts J.M., Bakker M. (2012). Publish (your data) or (let the data) perish! Why not publish your data too? „Intelligence” 40 (2), s. 73–76.

Wicherts J.M., Borsboom D., Kats J., Molenaar D. (2006). The poor availability of psychological research data for reanalysis. „American Psychologist” 61 (7), s. 726–728.

Wierzbicka A. (2007). Słowa klucze. Różne języki – różne kultury. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego.

Wilson M. (2002). Six views of embodied cognition. „Psychonomic Bulletin and Review” 9 (4), s. 625–636.

Yeh W., Barsalou L.W. (2006). The situated nature of concepts. „American Journal of Psychology” 119 (3), s. 349–384.

Załazińska A. (2001). Schematy myśli wyrażane w gestach. Gesty metaforyczne obrazujące wybrane abstrakcyjne relacje i zasoby podmiotu mówiącego. Kraków: Universitas.


Informacje: Rocznik Kognitywistyczny, 2014, s. 43 - 57

Typ artykułu: Oryginalny artykuł naukowy


„Sunny side is up”, but is the cloudy side down? Significance of vertical dimension in conceptualisation of emotions


Instytut Socjologii, Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie, ul. Grodzka 52, 31-044 Kraków

Instytut Psychologii, Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie, ul. Ingardena 6, 30-060 Kraków

Instytut Psychologii, Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie, ul. Ingardena 6, 30-060 Kraków

Publikacja: 26.11.2014

Status artykułu: Otwarte __T_UNLOCK

Licencja: Żadna

Udział procentowy autorów:

Marek Muszyński (Autor) - 33%
Joanna Durlik (Autor) - 33%
Marcin Bukowski (Autor) - 34%

Korekty artykułu:


Języki publikacji:


Liczba wyświetleń: 2553

Liczba pobrań: 1581