Romanica Cracoviensia

logo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego w Krakowie

Corrélats de l’anxiété langagière

Data publikacji: 19.09.2023

Romanica Cracoviensia, Tom 16 (2016), Tom 16, Numer 2, s. 75 - 96



Sylwia Kalińska
Uniwersytet Szczeciński, al.Papieża Jana Pawła II 22a, Szczecin
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6653-7885 Orcid
Wszystkie publikacje autora →


There is a large variety of language anxiety correlates. Some of them have been investigated individually, while others in big clusters. They come from various spheres of student functioning: they are personal and educational, though the impact of social factors in affecting language anxiety has so far been neglected. In the article a global picture of language anxiety correlates is presented. It is argued that the correlates can be divided into three basic groups: personal, educational and out-of-school. Within the personal group there were: gender, place of residence, and general anxiety. The educational correlates included forms of FL achievement, student’s attitude to the FL teacher and subject, FL task difficulty, coping and language learner beliefs. The social (out-of-school) correlates of language anxiety comprised social support, economic strain and critical events. It seems that these factors, varying in space (intra- to interpersonal dimensions), are closely related to levels of language anxiety.


Abu-RabiaSalim, 2004, Teachers’ role, learners’ gender differences, and FL anxiety among seventh-grade students studying English as a FL, Educational Psychology 24(5) : 711–721.

AllenHicken, Herron Michael C., 2003, A mixed-methodology investigation of the linguistic and affective outcomes of summer study abroad, Foreign Language Annals 36(3) : 370–385.

ArnoldJane, 2004, Comment les facteurs affectifs influencent-ils l’apprentissage d’une langue étrangère ?, Ela. Études de linguistique appliquée 144(4) : 407–425.

BaileyPhillip, Daley Christine E., Onwuegbuzie Anthony J., 1999, Foreign language anxiety and learning style, Foreign Language Annals 32 : 63–76.

BanduraAlbert, 1977, Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change, Psychological Review 84(2) : 191–215.

CampbellChristine M., 1999, Language anxiety in men and women: Dealing with gender difference in the language classroom, (in :) Affect in foreign language and second language learning, Dolly J. Young (ed.), New York : McGraw Hill, 191–215.

CampbellChristine M., Ortiz José A., 1986, Survey of attitudes specific to the foreign language class­room, Presidio of Monterey, CA : Defense Language Institute.

CampbellChristine M., Shaw Victor M., 1994, Language anxiety and gender differences in adult second language learners: Exploring the relationship, (in :) Faces in a crowd: The individual learner in multisection courses, Carol A. Klee (ed.), Boston : Heinle & Heinle, 47–80.

CasadoMatt A., Dereshiwsky Mary I., 2004, Effect of educational strategies on anxiety in the second language classroom: An exploratory comparative study between U.S. and Spanish first-semester university students, College Student Journal 38(1) : 23–36.

DeciEdward L., Ryan Richard M., 1985, Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior, New York : Plenum Press.

DewaeleJean-Marc, Furnham Adrian, 2000, Personality and speech production: A pilot study of second language learners, Personality and Individual Differences 28 : 355–365.

DunnRita, Dunn Kenneth, Price Gary E., 1991, Productivity environmental preference survey,
Lawrence, KS : Price Systems.

DuxburyJohn G., Tsai Ling L., 2010, The effects of cooperative learning on foreign language anxiety: A comparative study of Taiwanese and American universities, International Journal of Instruction 3(1) : 3–18.

EhrmanMadeline, Oxford Rebecca, 1990, Adult language learning styles and strategies in an intensive training setting, Modern Language Journal 74 : 311–326.

EhrmanMadeline, Oxford Rebecca, 1995, Cognition plus : Correlates of language learning success, Modern Language Journal 79(1) : 67–89.

FrantzenDiana, Magnan Sieloff, 2005, Anxiety and the true beginner-false beginner dynamic in beginning French and Spanish classes, Foreign Language Annals 38(2) : 171–190.

GardnerRobert C., MacIntyre Peter D., 1993, A student’s contribution to second language acquisition, part II : Affective variables, Language Teaching 26 : 1–11.

GregersenTammy, 2003, To err is human: A reminder to teachers of language-anxious students, Foreign Language Annals 36(1) : 25–32.

GregersenTammy, Horwitz Elaine K., 2002, Language learning and perfectionism: anxious and non-anxious language learners’ reactions to their own oral performance, The Modern Language Journal 86 : 562–570.

HillesonMick, 1996, ‘I want to talk with them, but I don’t want them to hear’: An introspective study of second language anxiety in an English-medium school, (in :) Voices from the Language Classroom, Kathleen M. Bailey, David Nunan (eds.), Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 248–282.

HorwitzElaine K., 1986, Preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of a Foreign Language Anxiety Scale, TESOL Quarterly 20(4) : 559–564.

HorwitzElaine K., Horwitz Michael B., Cope Jo Ann, 1986, Foreign language classroom anxiety, The Modern Language Journal 70(2) : 125–132.

HuangShufen, Eslami Zohreh, Hu Rou-Jui Sophia, 2010, The relationship between teacher and peer support and English-language learners’ anxiety, English Language Teaching 3(1) : 32–40.

JacksonJane, 2002, Reticence in second language case discussions: anxiety and aspirations, System 30(1) : 65–84.

JohnsonDavid W., Johnson Roger T., Holubec Edythe J., 1990, Circles of learning: Cooperation in the classroom, Edina, MN : Interaction Book.

KimTae-Young, 2009, The sociocultural interface between ideal self and ought-to self: a case study of two Korean students’ ESL motivation, (in :) Motivation, Language Identity and the L2 Self, Zoltán Dörnyei, Ema Ushioda (eds.), Bristol : Multilingual Matters, 274–294.

KitanoKazu, 2001, Anxiety in the college Japanese language classroom, Modern Language Journal 85(4) : 549–566.

KondoDavid Shinji, Yang Ying-Ling, 2004, Strategies for coping with language anxiety: the case of students of English in Japan, ELT Journal 58(3) : 258–265.

LiuMeihua, 2006, Anxiety in Chinese EFL students at different proficiency levels, System 34 : 301–316.

MacIntyrePeter D., 1999, Language anxiety: A review of the research for language teachers, (in :) Affect in foreign language and second language learning. A practical guide to creating a low-anxiety classroom, Dolly J. Young (eds.), Boston : McGraw-Hill, 24–45.

MacIntyrePeter D., Gardner Robert C., 1989, Anxiety and second language learning: Toward a theoretical clarification, Language Learning 32 : 251–275.

MakBarley Shuk-Yin, White Cynthia, 1997, Communication apprehension of Chinese ESL students, Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics 2(1) : 81–96.

Mihaljević Djigunović Jelena, 2000, Uloga straha od jezika u učenju stranog jezika, Strani jezici 1–2 : 9–13.

OhataKota, 2005, Potential sources of anxiety for Japanese learners of English: Preliminary case interviews with five Japanese college students in the U.S., TESL-EJ 9(3) : 1–21.

OxfordRebecca L., 1990, Language learning strategies and beyond : A look at strategies in the context of styles, (in :) Shifting the instructional focus to the learner, Sally Magnan (ed.), Middlebury, VT : Northeast Conference Reports, 35–55.

OxfordRebecca L., 1997, Cooperative learning, collaborative learning, and interaction : Three communicative strands in the language classroom, The Modern Language Journal 81 : 443–456.

OxfordRebecca L., 1999a, Anxiety and the language learner: New insights, (in :) Affect in language learning, Jane Arnold (ed.), Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 58–67.

OxfordRebecca L., 1999b, ‘Style wars’ as a source of anxiety in language classroom, (in :) Affect in language learning, Jane Arnold (ed.), Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 216–238.

PriceMary Lou, 1991, The subjective experience of foreign language anxiety: Interviews with high-anxious students, (in :) Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications, Elaine K. Horwitz, Dolly J. Young (eds.), Upper Saddle River, NJ : Prentice Hall, 101–108.

RyanRichard M., Deci Edward L., 2002, An overview of self-determination theory: An organismic-dialectical perspective, (in :) Handbook of self-determination research, Edward L. Deci, Richard M. Ryan (eds.), Rochester, NY : University of Rochester Press, 3–33.

SamimyKeiko K., Rardin Jennybelle P., 1994, Adult language learners’ affective reactions to community language learning: A descriptive study, Foreign Language Annals 27 : 379–390.

SinghManjet K.M., David Anne R., Choo Julie Ch.S, 2011, Communication apprehension among international undergraduates: The impact on their communicative skills, Modern Journal of Language Teaching 1(2) : 18–30.

SlavinRobert E., 1991, Synthesis of research on cooperative learning, Educational Leadership 48 : 71–82.

TanveerMuhammad, 2007, Investigation of the factors that cause language anxiety for ESL/EFL learners in learning speaking skills and the influence it casts on communication in the target language, http://www.academia.edu/4051629/Investigation_of_the_Factors_that_Cause_Language_Anxiety_for_ESL_EFL_Learners_in_Learning_Speaking_Skills_OK_FOR_AB_RESEARCH (date d’accès 6.06.2016).

TaseePanida, 2009, Factors affecting English major students anxiety about speaking English, http://sutir.sut.ac.th:8080/sutir/bitstream/123456789/3242/1/fulltext.pdf (date d’accès 6.06.2016).

ThaherMuna, 2005, Communication apprehension among An-Najah National University Students, An-Najah University Journal for Research – Humanities 19(2) : 627–678.

TsuiAmy B.M, 1996, Reticence and anxiety in second language learning, (in :) Voices from the language classroom, Kathleen M. Bailey, David Nunan (eds.), Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 145–167.

Von WördeRenée, 2003, Students’ perspectives on foreign language anxiety, Inquiry (e-journal) 8(1) : 1–15.

VygotskyLev S., 1986, Thought and language, Cambridge, MA : MIT Press.

WilliamsKenneth, 1991, Anxiety and formal second/foreign language learning, RELC Journal: A Journal of Language Teaching and Research in Southeast Asia 22(2) : 19–28.

WuKun-huei, 2010, The relationship between language learners’ anxiety and learning strategy in the CLT Classrooms, International Education Studies 3(1) : 174–191.

YoungDolly J., 1990, An investigation of students’ perspectives on anxiety and speaking, Foreign Language Annals 19 : 539–553.

YoungDolly J., 1999, Giving priority to the language learner first, (in :) Affect in foreign language and second language learning: A practical guide to create a low-anxiety classroom atmosphere, Dolly J. Young (ed.), Boston : McGraw-Hill College, 241–261.

ZumusniWan, Mustapha Wan, Ismail Noriah, 2010, ESL students communication apprehension and their choice of communicative activities, ASEAN Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education 22(1) : 22–29.


Informacje: Romanica Cracoviensia, Tom 16 (2016), s. 75 - 96

Typ artykułu: Oryginalny artykuł naukowy



Language anxiety correlates



Sylwia Kalińska
Uniwersytet Szczeciński, al.Papieża Jana Pawła II 22a, Szczecin
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6653-7885 Orcid
Wszystkie publikacje autora →

Uniwersytet Szczeciński, al.Papieża Jana Pawła II 22a, Szczecin

Publikacja: 19.09.2023

Status artykułu: Otwarte __T_UNLOCK

Licencja: Żadna

Udział procentowy autorów:

Sylwia Kalińska ( Autor) - 100%

Korekty artykułu:


Języki publikacji:


Liczba wyświetleń: 11

Liczba pobrań: 25