FAQ

Studies in Polish Linguistics

Knowing, Unknowing or Believing? Epistemic Stance in Donald Tusk’s Testimony in the Trial on the Polish Air Force Tu-154 Air Crash

Data publikacji: 31.10.2018

Studies in Polish Linguistics, Volume 13 (2018), Vol. 13, Issue 4, s. 209 - 236

https://doi.org/10.4467/23005920SPL.18.010.9259

Autorzy

Magdalena Szczyrbak
Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie, Polska, ul. Gołębia 24, 31-007 Kraków
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0182-0938 Orcid
Wszystkie publikacje autora →

Abstrakt

This article reports on a study into epistemic strategies used in the trial on the 2010 Polish Air Force Tu-154 air crash which took the lives of many high-ranking Polish officials including the President of Poland. It follows the KUB model proposed by Bongelli and Zuczkowski (2008), in which three epistemic stances are distinguished: Knowing, Unknowing and Believing. Taking into account the political context of the trial, the study focuses on the ways in which the witness, Poland’s former Prime Minister Donald Tusk, communicates his knowledge (certainty), unknowledge (neither certainty nor uncertainty) and belief (uncertainty). As the data reveal, when referring to the circumstances of the crash itself, the witness most willingly communicates unknowledge and belief while his declarations of certitude (knowledge) concern mostly procedural matters which are not directly related to the crash. As regards the explicit marking of (un)knowledge with the verb wiedzieć (‘know’), both wiem (‘I know’) and nie wiem (‘I don’t know’) are used rather sparingly. By contrast, phrases including references to the witness’s memory (e.g. to, co mam w pamięci [‘what I can remember’]) – marking either unknowledge or limited/uncertain knowledge (belief) – resurface as the witness’s preferred strategy. The data also demonstrate frequent co-occurrences of ‘knowing,’ ‘unknowing’ and ‘believing’ markers, reducing the overall degree of certainty communicated by the speaker. In sum, the study reveals how Poland’s former Prime Minister skillfully avoids unequivocal or categorical answersand conveys a low degree of certainty in his testimony.

Bibliografia

Aijmer Karin (1997). I think – an English modal particle. In Modality in Germanic languages: Historical and comparative perspectives, Toril Swan, Olaf J. Westvik (eds.), 1–47. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Aikhenvald Alexandra Y. (2004). Evidentiality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Aikhenvald Alexandra Y. (2018). Evidentiality: The framework. In The Oxford Handbook of Evidentiality, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald (ed.), 1–36. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bednarek Monika (2006). Epistemological positioning and evidentiality in English news discourse: A text-driven approach. Text & Talk 26(6), 635–660.

Biber Douglas, Johansson Stig, Leech Geoffrey, Conrad Susan, Finegan Edward (1999). The Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. London: Longman.

Bongelli Ramona, Riccioni Ilaria (2018). Questions and epistemic stance. Lecture delivered at the Institute of English Studies, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland, 29 May 2018.

Bongelli Ramona, Zuczkowski Andrzej (2008). Indicatori linguistici percettivi e cognitivi. Roma: Aracne.

Boye Kasper (2012). Epistemic Meaning. A Crosslinguistic and Functional-Cognitive Study. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Boye Kasper (2018). Evidentiality: The notion and the term. In The Oxford Handbook of Evidentiality, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald (ed.), 261–272. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Chafe Wallace (1986). Evidentiality in English conversation and academic writing. In Evidentiality: The Linguistic Coding of Epistemology, Wallace Chafe, Johanna Nichols (eds.), 261–272. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing.

Cornillie Bert (2009). Evidentiality and epistemic modality: On the close relationship of two different categories. Functions of Language 16(1), 44–32.

Cornillie Bert, Pietrandrea Paola (2012). Modality at work. Cognitive, interactional and textual functions of modal markers. Journal of Pragmatics 44(15), 2109–2115.

Halliday Michael Alexander Kirkwood (2004). An Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Edward Arnold.

Heritage John (2012a). Beyond and behind the words: Some reactions to my commentators. Research on Language and Social Interaction 45(1), 76–81.

Heritage John (2012b). Epistemics in action: Action formation and territories of knowledge. Research on Language and Social Interaction 45(1), 1–29.

Kärkkäinen Elise (2003). Epistemic Stance in English Conversation: A Description of its Interactional Functions, with a Focus on ‘I think.’ (Pragmatics & Beyond New Series, 115). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Keisanen Tiina (2007). Stancetaking as an interactional activity: Challenging the prior speaker. In Stancetaking in Discourse: Subjectivity, Evaluation, Interaction, Robert Englebretson (ed.), 253–281. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Lymer Gustav, Lindwall Oskar, Ivarsson Jonas (2017). Epistemic Status, Sequentiality, and Ambiguity: Notes on Heritage’s Rebuttal. Unpublished Manuscript. Uppsala University, Sweden.

Martin James R., White Peter R.R. (2005). The Language of Evaluation: Appraisal in English. London/New York: Palgrave.

Nuckolls Janis B., Lev Michael (eds.) (2012). Evidentiality in interaction. Special Issue of Pragmatics and Society 3(2).

Toulmin Stephen E. (1958). The Uses of Argument. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

White Peter R.R. (2003). Beyond modality and hedging: A dialogic view of the language of intersubjective stance. Text 23(2), 259–284.

Wierzbicka Anna (2006). English: Meaning and Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Zuczkowski Andrzej, Bongelli Ramona (2014). Epistemic stance: Knowing, Unknowing, Believing (KUB) positions. In Communicating Certainty and Uncertainty in Medical, Supportive and Scientific Contexts, Andrzej Zuczkowski, Ramona Bongelli, Ilaria Riccioni, Carla Canestrari (eds.), 115–136. Amsterdam/New York: John Benjamins.

Informacje

Informacje: Studies in Polish Linguistics, Volume 13 (2018), s. 209 - 236

Typ artykułu: Oryginalny artykuł naukowy

Tytuły:

Polski:

Knowing, Unknowing or Believing? Epistemic Stance in Donald Tusk’s Testimony in the Trial on the Polish Air Force Tu-154 Air Crash

Autorzy

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0182-0938

Magdalena Szczyrbak
Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie, Polska, ul. Gołębia 24, 31-007 Kraków
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0182-0938 Orcid
Wszystkie publikacje autora →

Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie, Polska, ul. Gołębia 24, 31-007 Kraków

Publikacja: 31.10.2018

Status artykułu: Otwarte __T_UNLOCK

Licencja: CC BY-NC-ND  ikona licencji

Udział procentowy autorów:

Magdalena Szczyrbak (Autor) - 100%

Korekty artykułu:

-

Języki publikacji:

Angielski

Liczba wyświetleń: 1427

Liczba pobrań: 951