Gdańskie Studia Azji Wschodniej

„Roboty w togach” i rozprawy na WeChatcie? Analiza przyczyn i sposobów wykorzystania nowych technologii w chińskim sądownictwie oraz charakterystyka zagrożeń z tym związanych

Data publikacji: 31.08.2023

Gdańskie Studia Azji Wschodniej, 2023, Zeszyt 23, s. 224 - 240



Katarzyna Latek
Uniwersytet Gdański
ul. Bażyńskiego 1a 80-952 Gdańsk, Polska
https://orcid.org/0009-0001-3670-5120 Orcid
Wszystkie publikacje autora →


Robots in a lawyer’s gown and trials on WeChat?: An analysis of the causes and applications of new technologies in the Chinese judiciary with a characterisation of related hazards

This article, based on a literature review, provides an analysis of the causes and applications of new technologies in the Chinese judiciary, and attempts a legal and ethical assessment of the hazards faced by both the developers as well as parties involved and court personnel. This issue is considered significant due to the growing extent of the application of increasingly sophisticated technological tools and their potential to effectively respond to the challenges encountered by the Chinese judiciary. The considerations presented lead to the conclusion that innovations applied in courtrooms contribute to the acceleration and facilitation of proceedings, address staff shortages, and have the potential to redefine established solutions in law. However, they are by no means a perfect remedy, and there are a number of dangers associated with their deployment, such as loss of autonomy by judges, algorithmic errors, technology bias, or over-reliance on technology. There is, therefore, a necessity to undertake further research into the application of modern technologies in the Chinese judiciary and to assess their effectiveness through the prism of the emerging risks they entail.


A New Generation Artificial Intelligence Development Plan, 2017, newamerica.org.

Bastian M., Judges in China must justify every ruling to an AI report, 2022, https://the-decoder.com/judges-in-china-must-justify-every-ruling-to-an-ai/ (dostęp: 23.05.2023).

Cao Y., Courts embrace AI to improve efficiency, „China Daily”, 16.11.2017, https://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2017-11/16/content_34595221.htm (dostęp: 10.12.2023).

Chen B.M., Li Z., How will technology change the face of Chinese justice?, „Columbia Journal of Asian Law” 2020, vol. 34, no. 1.

Chen S., Chinas court AI reaches every corner of justice system, advising judges and streamlining punishments, 13.07.2022, https://www.scmp.com/news/china/science/article/3185140/chinas-court-ai-reaches-every-corner-justice-system-advising (dostęp: 25.05.2023).

Chinese Court and Internet Judiciary, https://english.court.gov.cn/pdf/ChineseCourtsandInternetJudiciary.pdf (dostęp: 15.12.2022).

Dargas-Draganik M., Wykorzystanie sztucznej inteligencji w postępowaniach sądowych na przykładzie Chin i Estonii, „Gdańskie Studia Azji Wschodniej” 2022, z. 22.

Du G., Beijing Internet Courts First Year at a Glance: Inside Chinas Internet Courts Series -05, „China Justice Observer”, 19.10.2019, https://www.chinajusticeobserver.com/a/beijing-internetcourts-first-year-at-a-glance (dostęp: 28.11.2022).

Du G., Yu M., China Establishes Three Internet Courts to Try Internet-Related Cases Online: Inside Chinas Internet Courts Series -01, „China Justice Observer”, 16.12.2018, https://www.chinajusticeobserver.com/a/china-establishes-three-internet-courts-to-try-internet-related-cases-online (dostęp: 14.04.2023).

Jiajun L., Kellogg T., Verdicts from Chinas Courts Used to Be Accessible Online. Now Theyre Disappearing, „ChineFile”, 1.02.2022, https://www.chinafile.com/reporting-opinion/viewpoint/verdicts-chinas-courts-used-be-accessible-online-now-theyre-disappearing (dostęp: 23.10.2022).

Łągiewska M., The new landscape of arbitration in view of digitalization, „International and Comparative Business Law and Public Policy” 2022, no. 2.

Shi C., Sourdin T., Li B., The Smart Court-A New Pathway to Justice in China?, „International Journal for Court Administration” 2021, vol. 12.

Shuai H., Whats in SPCs 2021 Work Report?, „China Justice Observer”, 7.04.2022, https://www.chinajusticeobserver.com/a/what-s-in-spc-s-2021-work-report (dostęp: 15.12.2022).

Sourdin T., Zeleznikow J., Courts, Mediation and COVID-19, „Australian Business Law Review” 2020, vol. 48, no. 2.

State Council General Office, ‘Outline of the National Informatization Development Strategy’, „China Copyright and Media”, 27.07.2016, https://chinacopyrightandmedia.wordpress.com/2016/07/27/outline-of-the-national-informatization-development-strategy/ (dostęp: 26.05.2023).

Stern R.E., Liebman B.L., Roberts M.E., Wang A.Z., Automating Fairness? Artificial Intelligence in the Chinese Courts, „Columbia Journal of Transnational Law”, 1.08.2021.

Thomson B., Liu N., China Leads The Way In Legal Technology Patents, New Figures Show, „Financial Times”, 17.02.2019, https://www.ft.com/content/13ec27bc-304c-11e9-ba00-0251022932c8 (dostęp: 14.12.2022).

Wang N., Tian M.Y., Intelligent Justice: human-centered considerations in Chinas legal AI transformation, „AI and Ethics” 2022, vol. 3, issue 1.

Wang R., Legal technology in contemporary USA and China, „Computer Law & Security Review” 2020, vol. 39.

Wang Z., Chinas E-Justice Revolution, „Judicature” 2021, vol. 105, no. 1.

Wodecki B., AI helps judges decide court cases in China, „AI Business”, 18.07.2022, https://aibusiness.com/verticals/ai-helps-judges-decide-court-cases-in-china (dostęp: 10.01.2023).

Ying L., Perkins C., Chinese Court Recognizes Blockchain-Verified Evidence for the First Time, https://www.jdsupra.com/post/contentViewerEmbed.aspx?fid=4c21a6d4-cb7d-489d-a362-917b3185aac6 (dostęp: 7.01.2023).

Yu E., China wants legal sector to be AI-powered by 2025, 12.12.2022, https://www.zdnet.com.cdn.ampproject.org/c/s/www.zdnet.com/google-amp/article/china-wants-legal-sector-to-be-aipowered-by-2025/ (dostęp: 30.12.2022).

Zheng G.G., Chinas grand design of Peoples Smart Courts, „Asian Journal of Law and Society” 2020, vol. 7(3).

Zou M., Smart courts in China and the future of personal injury litigation, „Journal of Personal Injury Law” 2020, vol. 2.


Supreme People’s Court of China’s Judicial Interpretation on application of Judicial Interpretation No. 5, 2015, https://ipkey.eu/sites/default/files/legacy-ipkey-docs/interpretations-of-the-spc-on-applicability-of-the-civil-procedure-law-of-the-prc-2.pdf (dostęp: 23.03.2023).

The Opinions of the Supreme People’s Court concerning Accelerating the Establishment of Smart Courts, 2017, http://lawinfochina.com/display.aspx?id=23919&lib=law (dostęp: 25.05.2023).


Informacje: Gdańskie Studia Azji Wschodniej, 2023, s. 224 - 240

Typ artykułu: Oryginalny artykuł naukowy



Robots in a lawyer’s gown and trials on WeChat?: An analysis of the causes and applications of new technologies in the Chinese judiciary with a characterisation of related hazards



Katarzyna Latek
Uniwersytet Gdański
ul. Bażyńskiego 1a 80-952 Gdańsk, Polska
https://orcid.org/0009-0001-3670-5120 Orcid
Wszystkie publikacje autora →

Uniwersytet Gdański
ul. Bażyńskiego 1a 80-952 Gdańsk, Polska

Publikacja: 31.08.2023

Status artykułu: Otwarte __T_UNLOCK

Licencja: CC BY  ikona licencji

Udział procentowy autorów:

Katarzyna Latek (Autor) - 100%

Korekty artykułu:


Języki publikacji:


Liczba wyświetleń: 437

Liczba pobrań: 332