Zdrowie Publiczne i Zarządzanie

Polityka zdrowia publicznego opartego na dowodach i pandemia COVID-19

Data publikacji: 2021

Zdrowie Publiczne i Zarządzanie, 2021, Tom 19, Numer 3-4, s. 139 - 152



Włodzimierz Cezary Włodarczyk
Instytut Zdrowia Publicznego, Uniwersytet Jagielloński Collegium Medicum, Kraków
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9616-391X Orcid
Wszystkie publikacje autora →


Evidence based public health policy and the COVID-19 pandemic

Public health has always sought to use scientific findings in health-enhancing activities. At the end of the twentieth century, a program to use scientifically validated evidence in public health – evidence based public health (EBPH) – was formulated. Rigorous application of evidence was supposed to guarantee effective and efficient interventions. When the global threats of Covid 19 pandemic appeared, it seemed to be a great opportunity for EBPH to reaffirm its value. Societies, as well as governments, could have hoped that scientifically equipped public health would be able to cope well with the threat. However, reality has brought disappointment. It turned out that public health does not have enough confirmed evidence to support policymakers. In many situations, both politicians and medical doctors had to make quick and inevitably intuitive decisions, without documented evidence. The pandemic has forced the need to search for evidence more quickly, but it has raised the question of whether the procedure for validating evidence must be as rigorous as it had been recommended in the past. Under pressure emerging needs, a number of evidence-based recommendations have been prepared and offered to decisionmakers to be used.


1. WHO COVID-19 –China, 5 January 2020, https://www.who.int/emergencies/disease-outbreak-news/item/2020-DON229 (dostęp: 3.04.2022).
2. Zhou L., Ayeh S.K., Chidambaram V., Karakousis P.C., Modes of Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and Evidence for Preventive Behavioral Interventions, „BMC Infectious Diseases”, 28 May 2021, https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-021-06222-4 (dostęp: 13.04.2022).
3. Huang Ch., Wang Y., Li X. i in., Clinical Features of Patients Infected with 2019 Novel Coronavirus in Wuhan, China, „The Lancet” 2020; 15–21 February; 395 (10223): 497–506, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7159299/(dostęp: 24.03.2022).
4. Li J.-Y., You Z., Wang Q. i in., The Epidemic of 2019-Novel-Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Pneumonia and Insights for Emerging Infectious Diseases in the Future, „Microbes and Infection”2020; 22(2): 80–85, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7079563/ (dostęp: 3.04.2022).
5. Abd El-WahabSafaa E.W. i in., SARS-CoV-2 Transmission Channels: A Review of the Literature, „MEDICC Review”, 22 (4) 07 July 2021/Oct-Dec 2020, https://scielosp.org/article/medicc/2020.v22n4/51-69/ (dostęp: 15.03.2022).
6. WHO Mission summary: WHO Field Visit to Wuhan, China 20–21 January 2020, 22 January 2020, https://www.who.int/china/news/detail/22-01-2020-field-visit-wuhan-china-jan-2020 (dostęp: 18.02.2022).
7. The Lancet Editorial, „The Lancet”2020, 395 (10221): 311, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7134625/ (dostęp: 3.04.2022).
8. WHO WHO Director-General’s statement on IHR Emergency Committee on Novel Coronavirus, 22 January 2020, https://www.who.int/director-general/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-statement-on-ihr-emergency-committee-on-novel-coronavirus (dostęp: 6.02.2022).
9. WHO COVID-19 Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) Global research and innovation forum, 12 February 2020, https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/covid-19-public-health-emergency-of-international-concern-(pheic)-global-research-and-innovation-forum (dostęp: 12.02.2022).
10. WHO WHO Director-General’s opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 - 11 March 2020, https://www.who.int/director-general/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19---11-march-2020 (dostęp: 12.03.2022).
11. Nicola M., O’Neill N., Sohrabi C. i in., Evidence Based Management Guideline for the COVID-19 Pandemic –Review Article, „International Journal of Surgery”2020; 77: 206–216, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1743919120302843?via%3Dihub (dostęp: 5.03.2022).
12. Sousa-Uva A., Evidence-Based Public Health and the Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic: A Balance Between Science and Art?, „Portuguese Journal of Public Health”2021; 39: 1–2, https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/516290 (dostęp: 11.03.2022).
13. Kodadek L.M., Berger J.C., Haut E.R., Guidance vs. Guidelines: the Role of Evidence-Based Medicine in the COVID-19 Pandemic, „Journal of Patient Safety and Risk Management”2020; 25 (6): 216–218, https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/2516043520965844 (dostęp: 9.03.2022).
14. NIH COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines. Corticosteroids, Last Updated: December 16, 2021, https://www.covid19treatmentguidelines.nih.gov/therapies/immunomodulators/corticosteroids/ (dostęp: 2.02.2022)
15. Carley S., Horner D., Body R., Mackway-Jones K., Evidence-Based Medicine and COVID-19: What to Believe and When to Change, „Journal of Emergency Medicine”2020; 37, 9: 572–575, https://emj.bmj.com/content/37/9/572 (dostęp: 13.02.2022).
16. Vanagas G. et al., Evidence-Based Public Health, „BioMed Research International”2017, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5705863/pdf/BMRI2017-2607397.pdf (dostęp: 10.02.2022).
17. Jenicek M., Epidemiology, Evidence-Based Medicine, and Evidence-Based Health, „Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health”1997; 7: 187–97, https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jea1991/7/4/7_4_187/_pdf/-char/en (dostęp: 12.03.2022).
18. Healty People 2020, Evidence-Based Clinical and Public Health: Generating and Applying the Evidence, Secretary’s Advisory Committee on National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives for 2020, July 26, 2010, https://www.healthypeople.gov/sites/default/files/EvidenceBasedClinicalPH2010.pdf (dostęp: 15.01.2022).
19. Cochrane Review Group ma swojej stronie hasło: Trusted evidence. Informed decisions. Better health, https://www.cochranelibrary.com/ (dostęp: 19.02.2022).
20. Anderson L.M. et al., Evidence-Based Public Health Policy and Practice: Promises and Limits, „American Journal of Preventive Medicine”2005; 28(5S), https://www.thecommunityguide.org/sites/default/files/publications/gen-AJPM-c-evidence-based-policy-promiseandlimits.pdf (dostęp: 7.02.2022).
21. Waters E., Doyle J., Evidence-Based Public Health: Cochrane Update, „Journal of Public Health Medicine”2003, 25, 1 : 72–75, https://tiny.pl/w7m3l(dostęp: 12.02.2022).
22. Parsaik A.K., Singh B., Evidence Based Public Health, IntechOpen, 15.05.2013, https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/44010 (dostęp: 11.03.2022).
23. Bouchrika I., Levels of Evidence in Research: Examples, Hierachies & Practice, 10.01.2021, https://research.com/research/levels-of-evidence-in-research-examples-hierachies-practice (dostęp: 12.02.2022).
24. Guyatt G.H., Oxman A.D., Schünemann H.J. i in. GRADE Guidelines: a New Series of Articles in the Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, „Journal of Clinical Epidemiology” 2011; 64 (4): 380–382, https://www.jclinepi.com/article/S0895-4356(10)00329-X/fulltext (dostęp: 11.01.2022).
25. Ng E., Colombani P. de, Framework for Selecting Best Practices in Public Health: A Systematic Literature Review, „Journal of Public Health Research”2015; 4 (3): 517, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4693338/pdf/jphr-2015-3-577.pdf (dostęp: 19.02.2022).
26. Wing C., Kosali S., Bello-Gomez R.A., Designing Difference in Difference Studies: Best Practices for Public Health Policy Research, „Annual Review of Public Health”, 39: 453–469, https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-013507 (dostęp: 16.03.2022).
27. EU ASSET, Action Plan on Science in Society Related Issues in Epidemics and Total Pandemics, 1.01.2014, http://www.asset-scienceinsociety.eu/sites/default/files/description_of_work_-_dow.pdf (dostęp: 18.01.2022).
28. EU, A Collection of Best Practices in Public Health, 10.11.2016, http://www.asset-scienceinsociety.eu/news/features/collection-best-practices-public-health (dostęp: 2.04.2022).
29. EU, Eupati, a Project for Informed Patient and Citizens, 24.10.2017, http://www.asset-scienceinsociety.eu/pages/eupati-project-informed-patient-and-citizens (dostęp: 11.02.2022).
30. EU ASSET, Joining Forces against Infectious Threats, „Final Summary Report”2017, https://docs.google.com/viewerng/viewer?url=http://www.asset-scienceinsociety.eu/sites/default/files/d_7.16_publishable_report_final_web.pdf (dostęp: 12.03.2022).
31. ECDC, Protocol for a Focused After-Action Review on Evidence-Based Decision-Making for Selected COVID-19 Response Measures, September 2021, https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/Protocol-for-focused-AAR-on-evidence-based-decision-making-COVID-19.pdf (dostęp: 5.02.2022).
32. Baur Ch., What is the Hierarchy of Evidence?, Research Square, 17.11.2021, https://www.researchsquare.com/blog/what-is-the-hierarchy-of-evidence (dostęp: 2.02.2022).
33. Mizrahi M., Arguments from Expert Opinion and Persistent Bias, University of Windsor, Proceedings of the Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation Conference (OSSA), 18–21.05.2016, https://scholar.uwindsor.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=2211&context=ossaarchive (dostęp: 12.02.2022).
34. Walker J.S., Bruns E.J., Building on Practice-Based Evidence: Using Expert Perspectives to Define the Wraparound Process, „Psychiatric Services”2006; 57 (11): 1579–1585, https://ps.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/ps.2006.57.11.1579?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%20%200pubmed (dostęp: 11.03.2022).
35. Shelton J.D., Evidence-Based Public Health: Not Only whether It Works, but How It Can Be Made to Work Practicably at Scale, „Global Health: Science and Practice”2014; 2(3), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4168632/ (dostęp: 02.02.2022).
36. Brownson R.C., Baker E.A., Deshpande A.D., Gillespie K.N., Evidence-Based Public Health, Foreword, Oxford University Press, 2017, https://books.google.pl/books?hl=pl&lr=&id=tCnADgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=who+definition+of+evidence+based+public+health
of%20evidence%20based%20public%20health&f=false (dostęp: 12.02.2022).
37. Dagenais Ch., Knowledge Brokering in Public Health: A Critical Analysis of the Results of a Qualitative Evaluation, „Evaluation and Program Planning”2015; 53: 10–17, https://reader.elsevier.com/reader/sd/pii/S0149718915000701?token=083C718C461A4E6AA3D1C3CF813669023AAF5C829612EC9961CD5B24D1D412A386043878
F4993568918749BD8BFB5C64&originRegion=eu-west-1&originCreation=20210814153902 (dostęp: 7.04.2022).
38. Ensor T., Duran-Moreno A., Corruption as a challenge to effective regulation in the health sector, in: Saltman R., Busse R., Mossialos E., eds., Regulating entrepreneurial behaviour in European health care systems, European Observatory on Health Care Systems Series, https://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/98430/E74487.pdf (dostęp: 7.03.2022).
39. Marks L., Cave S., Hunter D.J., Public Health Governance: Views of Key Stakeholders, „Public Health”2010; 124 (1): 55–59, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0033350609003552?casa_token=b2Mfl3ejuFAAAAAA:62TA6jGZdQRyA2jbqiQECIEcVinqR1FT4iubv3h9mfyzHKBjCO
VhyId5JnQmy9tjUOCw9aPK (dostęp: 7.04.2022).
40. Cottrell E., Whitlock E., Kato E. et al.: Defining the Benefits of Stakeholder Engagement in Systematic Reviews [Internet]. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2014, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK196176/ (dostęp: 3.04.2022).
41. Laird Y. i in., Stakeholders’Experiences of the Public Health Research Process: Time to Change the System?, „BMC Health Research Policy and Systems”2020; 18(83), https://health-policy-systems.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s12961-020-00599-5.pdf  (dostęp: 7.03.2022).
42. Berridge V., Multidisciplinary public health: what sort of victory?, „Public Health”2007; 121 (6): 404–408.
43. Detels R., Current Scope and Concerns in Public Health, w: Detels R., McEwen J., Beaglehole R. et al., eds., Oxford Textbook of Public Health, Vol 1, Oxford 2002.
44. Tulchinsky T.H., Varavikova E.A., The New Public Health, Third Edition, Elsevier Academic Press, 2014: 44.
45. Oxford Textbook of Global Public Health, Sixth Edition, R. Detels, M. Gulliford, Abdool Karim Q., Tan Ch.Ch., eds., Oxford University Press, 2015.
46. Editorial Putting Public Health Back into Epidemiology, „The Lancet”1997; 350 (9073): 229, https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(97)21030-5/fulltext (dostęp: 2.04.2022).
47. Friis R.H., Sellers T.A., Epidemiology for Public Health Practice, Jones & Bartlett Learning 2021.
48. CDC, The Importance of Epidemiology, Director’s Office 2021, https://www.cdc.gov/eis/downloads/epidemiology-factsheet.pdf dostęp: 7.04.2022).
49. Spitler H.D., Medical Sociology and Public Health: Problems and Prospects for Collaboration in the New Millennium, „Sociological Spectrum”2001; 21 (3): 247–263, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/027321701300201975?journalCode=usls20 (dostęp: 11.05.2022).
50. Bunton R., MacDonald G., Introduction, in: Health Promotion: Disciplines and Diversity, R. Bunton, G. MacDonald, eds., Routledge London –New York 2002, https://www.amazon.com/Health-Promotion-Disciplines-Robin-Bunton-ebook/dp/B00IC8E1ZC?asin=B00IC8E1ZC&revisionId=&format=2&depth=1 (dostęp: 16.03.2022).
51. Edwards R.T., Charles J.M., Lloyd-Williams H., Public Health Economics: a Systematic Review of Guidance for the Economic Evaluation of Public Health Interventions and Discussion of Key Methodological Issues, „BMC Public Health”2013; 13 (1001), https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1186/1471-2458-13-1001.pdf(dostęp: 11.03.2022).
52. The Oxford Handbook of Public Health Ethics, A.C. Mastroianni, Jeffrey P. Kahn, Nancy E. Kass, eds., Oxford University Press, 2018, https://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190245191.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780190245191-e-70 (dostęp: 11.03.2022).
53. Greer S.L., Political Analysis in Public Health: Middle-Range Concepts to Make Sense of the Politics of Health, „European Journal of Public Health”2018; 28 (3): 3–6, https://academic.oup.com/eurpub/article/28/suppl_3/3/5149573 (dostęp: 14.03.2022).
54. McPherson K., Public Health Does not Need to Be Led by Doctors, „BMJ”2001; 322 (7302): 1593–1596, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1120630/pdf/1593.pdf (dostęp: 4.03.2022).
55. Fielding J.E., Briss P.A., Promoting Evidence-Based Public Health Policy: Can We Have Better Evidence And More Action? „Health Affairs”2006; 25 (4): 969–978, https://core.ac.uk/reader/11541401?utm_source=linkout (dostęp: 14.03.2022).
56. Brownson Ross C. et al., Evidence-Based Public Health: A Fundamental Concept for Public Health Practice, „Annual Review of Public Health”2009; 30, https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.031308.100134 (dostęp:14.03.2022).
57. Vanagas G. et al., Evidence-Based Public Health „BioMed Research International”2017, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5705863/pdf/BMRI2017-2607397.pdf (dostęp: 14.03.2022).
58. Brownson R.C., Chriqui J.F., Stamatakis K.A., Understanding Evidence-Based Public Health Policy, „American Journal of Public Health”2009; 99 (9), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2724448/pdf/1576.pdf (dostęp: 28.01.2022).
59. Greenhalgh T., Will COVID-19 Be Evidence-Based Medicine’s Nemesis? „PLoS Medicine”2020; 17 (6): e1003266, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003266 (dostęp: 3.05.2022).
60. Lancaster K., Rhodes T., Rosengarten M., Making Evidence and Policy in Public Health Emergencies: Lessons from COVID-19 for Adaptive Evidence-Making and Intervention, „Evidence & Policy”2020; 16 (3): 477–490 (dostęp: 3.05.2022).
61. Schwendinger F., Pocecco E., Counteracting Physical Inactivity during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Evidence-Based Recommendations for Home-Based Exercise, „International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health”2020; 17 (11): 3909,
doi: 10.3390/ijerph17113909. PMID: 32492778; PMCID: PMC7311977 (dostęp: 29.01.2022).
62. Choosing Wisely. A special report on the first five years, The ABIM Foundation, October 26, 2017, https://www.choosingwisely.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Choosing-Wisely-at-Five.pdf (dostęp: 03.05.2022).
63. Choosing wisely. Our Mission, ABIM Foundation, 2022, https://www.choosingwisely.org/our-mission/ (dostęp: 3.05.2022).
64. Pramesh C.S. et al., Choosing Wisely for COVID-19: Ten Evidence-Based Recommendations for Patients and Physicians, „Nature Medicine”2021; 27: 1324–1327, https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-021-01439-x#Tab1 (dostęp: 15.01.2022).
65. Halperin D.T., Hearst N., Hodgins S. et al., Halperin D.T., Hearst N., Hodgins S. et al., Revisiting COVID-19 Policies: 10 Evidence-Based Recommendations for Where to Go from Here, „BMC Public Health”2021; 21: 2084, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-12082-z (dostęp: 13.03.2022).
66. CDC Science Brief: Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in K-12 Schools and Early Care and Education Programs –Updated, Dec. 17, 2021, https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/science/science-briefs/transmission_k_12_schools.html(dostęp: 3.04.2022).
Hanmer G., Milthorpe B., Poorly Ventilated Schools are a Super-Spreader Event Waiting to Happen. It May Be as Simple as Opening Windows, „The Conversation”2021; https://theconversation.com/poorly-ventilated-schools-are-a-super-spreader-event-waiting-to-happen-it-may-be-as-simple-as-opening-windows-165958 (dostęp: 3.04.2022); Bisknell E., Large Covid-19 Outbreak at Long Eaton School Linked to ‘super spreaders’, „Nottingham News”, 20.05.2021, https://www.nottinghampost.com/news/local-news/large-covid-19-outbreak-long-5435109 (dostęp: 3.04.2022).
67. Daniels N., Just Health: Meeting Health Needs Fairly, New York 2008: 117, https://books.google.pl/books?id=DrVLvi0r6JIC&pg=PA103&hl=pl&source=gbs_toc_r&cad=3#v=onepage&q&f=false (dostęp: 3.04.2022).


Informacje: Zdrowie Publiczne i Zarządzanie, 2021, s. 139 - 152

Typ artykułu: Oryginalny artykuł naukowy



Evidence based public health policy and the COVID-19 pandemic



Włodzimierz Cezary Włodarczyk
Instytut Zdrowia Publicznego, Uniwersytet Jagielloński Collegium Medicum, Kraków
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9616-391X Orcid
Wszystkie publikacje autora →

Instytut Zdrowia Publicznego, Uniwersytet Jagielloński Collegium Medicum, Kraków

Publikacja: 2021

Status artykułu: Otwarte __T_UNLOCK

Licencja: CC BY  ikona licencji

Udział procentowy autorów:

Włodzimierz Cezary Włodarczyk (Autor) - 100%

Korekty artykułu:


Języki publikacji:


Liczba wyświetleń: 625

Liczba pobrań: 429