FAQ

Teoria Polityki

Logotyp Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego

Investigating Leaders: Integrating the Study of Individuals in Foreign Policy Analysis and International Relations

Data publikacji: 19.09.2022

Teoria Polityki, 2022, Nr 6/2022, s. 81 - 99

https://doi.org/10.4467/25440845TP.22.003.16003

Autorzy

Marijke Breuning
University of North Texas
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9981-3989 Orcid
Wszystkie publikacje autora →

Abstrakt

Foreign policy analysis (FPA) has long studied leaders and individual decision makers. In contrast, international relations (IR) long favored the system level of analysis, treating the state as an abstract unitary actor. However, IR has begun to rediscover the individual level of analysis, making this an opportune time to consider the contributions of both FPA and IR to the study of leaders and decision makers. This article reviews how FPA and IR study individual decision makers, highlighting prominent approaches in each field, comparing these approaches –highlighting similarities, differences, and connections –and discusses appropriate applications of each in empirical research. The contribution ends with suggestions for integrating the FPA and IR approaches to the study of leaders and individual decision makers, highlighting how this integration benefits the ability of both FPA and IR to address interesting research questions regarding the role of leaders and individual decision makers in international politics.

Bibliografia

Ariely, D. (2008). Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces that Shape Our Decisions. New York: Harper.
Breuning, M. (2011). “Role Theory Research in International Relations: State of the Art and Blind Spots”. In: S. Harnisch, C. Frank, H.W. Maull (eds.). Role Theory Research in International Relations: Conceptual Challenges and Political Promise. London–New York: Routledge.
Breuning, M. (2017). “Role Theory in Foreign Policy”. In: C. Thies (ed.). Encyclopedia of Foreign Policy Analysis / Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.
Breuning, M. (2019). “Role Theory in Politics and International Relations”. In: A. Mintz, L. Terris (eds.). Oxford Handbook of Behavioral Political Science. New York: Oxford University Press.
Brummer, K., Young, M.D., Ozdamar, O., Canbolat, S., Thiers, C., Rabini, C., Dimmroth, K., Hansel, M., and Mehvar, A. (2020). “Coding in Tongues: Developing Non-English Coding Schemes for Leadership Profiling”. International Studies Review 22(4), pp. 1039–1067.
Bueno de Mesquita, B., Siverson, R.M. (1995). “War and the Survival of Political Leaders: A Comparative Study of Regime Types and Political Accountability”. American Political Science Review, 89(4), pp. 841–855.
Bueno de Mesquita, B., Smith, A., Siverson, R.M., Morrow, J.D. (2003). The Logic of Political Survival. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Callahan, P., Brady, L.P., Hermann, M.G. (eds.) (1982). Describing Foreign Policy Behavior. Beverly Hills: Sage.
Chiozza, G., Goemans, H.E. (2003). “Peace through Insecurity: Tenure and International Conflict”. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 47(4), pp. 443–467.
Chiozza, G., Goemans, H.E. (2011). Leaders and International Conflict. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Cottam, R. (1977). Foreign Policy Motivation: A General Theory and a Case Study. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Cuhadar, E., Kaarbo, J., Kesgin, B., Ozkececi-Taner, B. (2017). “Personality or Role? Comparisons of Turkish Leaders Across Different Institutional Positions”. Political Psychology, 38(1), pp. 39–54.
Dille, B., Young, M.D. (2000). “The Conceptual Complexity of Presidents Carter and Clinton: An Automated Content Analysis of Temporal Stability and Source Bias”. Political Psychology, 21(3), pp. 587–596.
Dyson, S.B. (2006). “Personality and Foreign Policy: Tony Blair’s Iraq Decisions”. Foreign Policy Analysis, 2(3), pp. 289–306.
Dyson, S.B. (2014). “Origins of the Psychological Profiling of Political Leaders: The U.S. Office of Strategic Services and Adolf Hitler”. Intelligence and National Security, 29(5), pp. 654–674.
East, M.A., Salmore, S.A., Hermann, C.F. (eds.) (1978). Why Nations Act. Beverly Hills: Sage.
Gallagher, M.E., Allen, S.H. (2014). “Presidential Personality: Not Just a Nuisance”. Foreign Policy Analysis, 10(1), pp. 1–21.
George, A.L. (1969). “The ‘Operational Code’: A Neglected Approach to the Study of Political Leaders and Decision-making”. International Studies Quarterly, 13, pp. 190–222.
George, A.L. (1993). Bridging the Gap between Theory and Practice. Washington, DC: U.S. Institute for Peace.
George, A.L. (1994). “The Two Cultures of Academia and Policy-Making: Bridging the Gap”. Political Psychology, 15, pp. 143–171.
Goemans, H.E., Gleditsch, K.S., Chiozza, G. (2009). “Introducing Archigos: A Dataset of Political Leaders”. Journal of Peace Research, 46(2), pp. 269–283.
Guimaraes, F. de Sa (2021). A Theory of Master Role Transition: Small Powers Shaping Regional Hegemons. New York: Routledge.
Hafner-Burton, E., Haggard, S., Lake, D.A., Victor, D.G. (2017). “The Behavioral Revolution and International Relations”. International Organization, 71(S1), pp. S1–S31.
Hermann, M.G. (1974). “Leader Personality and Foreign Policy Behavior”. In: J.N. Rosenau (ed.). Comparing Foreign Policies. New York: Wiley.
Hermann, M.G. (1978). “Effects of Personal Characteristics of Leaders on Foreign Policy”. In: M.A. East, S.A. Salmore, C.F. Hermann (eds.). Why Nations Act. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Hermann, M.G. (1980a). “Explaining Foreign Policy Behavior Using Personal Characteristics of Political Leaders”. International Studies Quarterly, 24, pp. 7–46.
Hermann, M.G. (1980b). “On ‘Foreign Policy Makers, Personality Attributes, and Interviews: A Note on Reliability Problems’”. International Studies Quarterly, 24(1), pp. 67–73.
Hermann, M.G. (1987). “Role Theory and Foreign Policy Dynamics: The African Arena”. In: S.G. Walker (ed.). Role Theory and Foreign Policy Analysis. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Hermann, M.G. (2002). “Assessing Leadership Style: A Trait Analysis”. Social Science Automation, https://socialscience.net/docs/LTA.pdf Accessed 20 June 2021 (accessed: 30.06.2022).
Hermann, M.G. (2005). “Assessing Leadership Style: Trait Analysis”. In: J.M. Post (ed.). The Psychological Assessment of Political Leaders. With Profiles of Saddam Hussein and Bill Clinton. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Herrmann, R.K. (1985). Perceptions and Behavior in Soviet Foreign Policy. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Herrmann, R.K. (2017). “How Attachments to the Nation Shape Beliefs About the World: A Theory of Motivated Reasoning”. International Organization, 71(S1), pp. S61–S84.
Holsti, O.R. (1970). “The ‘Operational Code’Approach to the Study of Political Leaders: John Foster Dulles’Philosophical and Instrumental Beliefs”. Canadian Journal of Political Science, 3, pp. 123–157.
Holsti, O.R. (1976). “Foreign Policy Formation Viewed Cognitively”. In: R. Axelrod (ed.). Structure of Decision: The Cognitive Maps of Political Elites. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Holsti, O.R. (1977). “The ‘Operational Code’as An Approach to the Analysis of Belief Systems”. Final Report to the National Science Foundation. Grant No. SOC75-15368. Duke University.
Horowitz, M.C., McDermott, R., Stam, A.C. (2005). “Leader Age, Regime Type, and Violent International Relations”. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49(5), pp. 661–685.
Horowitz, M.C., Stam, A.C. (2014). “How Prior Military Experience Influences the Future Militarized Behavior of Leaders”. International Organization, 68(3), pp. 527–559.
Horowitz, M.C., Stam, A.C., Ellis, C.M. (2015). Why Leaders Fight. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hudson, V.M. (2002). “Foreign Policy Decision-Making: A Touchstone for International Relations Theory in the Twenty-First Century”. In: R.C. Snyder, H.W. Bruck, B. Sapin. Foreign Policy Decision-Making (Revisited). New York, NY: Palgrave.
Hudson, V.M. (2005). “Foreign Policy Analysis: Actor-Specific Theory and the Ground of International Relations”. Foreign Policy Analysis, 1(1), pp. 1–30.
Hudson, V.M., Vore, Ch.S. (1995). “Foreign Policy Analysis Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow”. Mershon International Studies Review, 39, pp. 209–238.
Jervis, R. (1976). Perception and Misperception in International Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kaarbo, J. (1997). “Prime Minister Leadership Styles in Foreign Policy Decision-Making: A Framework for Research”. Political Psychology, 18(3), pp. 553–581.
Kaarbo, J. (2015). “A Foreign Policy Analysis Perspective on the Domestic Politics Turn in IR Theory”. International Studies Review, 17(2), pp. 189–216.
Kaarbo, J., Hermann, M.G. (1998). “Leadership Styles of Prime Ministers: How Individual Differences Affect the Foreign Policymaking Process”. Leadership Quarterly, 9, pp. 243–263.
Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, Fast and Slow. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. 
Leites, N. (1951). The Operational Code of the Politburo. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Leites, N. (1953). A Study of Bolshevism. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.
Levy, J.S. (1994). “Learning and Foreign Policy: Sweeping a Conceptual Minefield”. International Organization, 48(2), pp. 279–312.
Lupton, D.L. (2018). “Reexamining Reputation for Resolve: Leaders, States, and the Onset of International Crises”. Journal of Global Security Studies, 3(2), pp. 198–216.
Malici, A., Malici, J. (2005). “The Operational Codes of Fidel Castro and Kim Il Sung: The Last Cold Warriors?”. Political Psychology, 26(3), pp. 387–412.
Marfleet, B.G. (2000). “The Operational Code of John F. Kennedy During the Cuban Missile Crisis: A Comparison of Public and Private Rhetoric”. Political Psychology, 21(3), pp. 545–558.
Marfleet, B.G., Miller, C. (2005). “Failure after 1441: Bush and Chirac in the UN Security Council”. Foreign Policy Analysis, 1(3), pp. 333–360.
McManus, R.W. (2021). “Crazy Like a Fox? Are Leaders with Reputations for Madness More Successful at International Coercion?”. British Journal of Political Science, 51(1), pp. 275–293.
Mintz, A., Redd, S.B., Tal-Shir, E. (2017). “The Poliheuristic Theory of Decision-Making”. In: W. Thompson (ed.). Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.
Morgenthau, H.J. (1985). Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace, revised by K.W. Thompson. 6th ed. New York: Alfred Knopf.
Preston, T. (2001). The President and His Inner Circle. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Rasler, K.A., Thompson, W.R., Chester, K.M. (1980). “Foreign Policy Makers, Personality Attributes, and Interviews: A Note on Reliability Problems”. International Studies Quarterly, 24(1), pp. 47–66.
Rosenau, J.N. (1974). Comparing Foreign Policies: Theories, Findings, Methods. New York: Wiley.
Schafer, M. (2000). “Issues in Assessing Psychological Characteristics At-A-Distance: An Introduction to the Symposium”. Political Psychology, 21, pp. 511–527.
Schafer, M., Crichlow, S. (2000). “Bill Clinton’s Operational Code: Assessing Source Material Bias”. Political Psychology, 21(3), pp. 559–571.
Schafer, M., Walker, S.G. (eds.) (2021). Operational Code Analysis and Foreign Policy Roles: Crossing Simon’s Bridge. New York: Routledge.
Shannon, V.P., Kowert, P.A. (eds.) (2012). Psychology and Constructivism in International Relations: An Ideational Alliance. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Simon, H.A. (1985). “Human Nature in Politics: The Dialogue of Psychology with Political Science”. American Political Science Review, 79, pp. 293–304.
Singer, E., Hudson, V. (eds.) (1992). Political Psychology and Foreign Policy. Boulder: Westview Press.
Singer, J.D. (1961). “The Level-of-Analysis Problem in International Relations”. World Politics, 14(1), pp. 77–92.
Snyder, R.C., Bruck, H.W., Sapin, B. (1962). Foreign Policy Decision-Making: An Approach to the Study of International Politics. New York: Free Press of Glencoe.
Snyder, R.C., Bruck, H.W., Sapin, B. (2002 [1962]). Foreign Policy Decision-Making (Revisited). New York, NY: Palgrave.
Suedfeld, P., Bluck, S. (1988). “Changes in Integrative Complexity Prior to Surprise Attacks”. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 32(4), pp. 626–635.
Suedfeld, P., Jhangiani, R. (2009). “Cognitive Management in an Enduring International Rivalry: The Case of India and Pakistan”. Political Psychology, 30(6), pp. 937–951.
Suedfeld, P., Tetlock, P.E. (1977). “Integrative Complexity of Communications in International Crises”. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 21(1), pp. 169–184.
Sylvan, D.A., Voss, J.F. (eds.) (1998). Problem Representation in Foreign Policy Decision Making. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Thies, C., Breuning, M. (2012). “Integrating Foreign Policy Analysis and International Relations through Role Theory”. Foreign Policy Analysis, 8(1), pp. 1–4.
Thucydides (1982). The Peloponnesian War, ed. T.E. Wick. New York: Random House. Tversky, A., Kahneman, D. (1974). “Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases”. Science, 185(4157), pp. 1124–1132.
Tweraser, K.K. (1974). Changing Patterns of Political Beliefs: The Foreign Policy Operational Codes of J. William Fulbright, 1943–1967. Beverly Hills: Sage.
Vertzberger, Y.Y.I. (1990). The World in Their Minds: Information Processing, Cognition, and Perception in Foreign Policy Decisionmaking. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Walker, S.G. (1977). “The Interface Between Beliefs and Behavior: Henry A. Kissinger’s Operational Code and the Vietnam War”. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 21, pp. 129–168.
Walker, S.G. (1983). “The Motivational Foundations of Political Belief Systems: A Re-Analysis of the Operational Code Construct”. International Studies Quarterly, 27(2), pp. 179–202.
Walker, S.G. (1990). “The Evolution of Operational Code Analysis”. Political Psychology, 11(2), pp. 403–418.
Walker, S.G., Schafer, M., Young, M.D. (1998). “Systematic Procedures for Operational Code Analysis: Measuring and Modeling Jimmy Carter’s Operational Code”. International Studies Quarterly, 42(1), pp. 175–190.
Waltz, K.N. (2010 [1979]). Theory of International Politics. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
Wilkenfeld, J., Hopple, G.W., Rossa, P.J., Andriole, S.J. (1980). Foreign Policy Behavior: The Interstate Behavior Analysis Model. Beverly Hills: Sage.
Yang, Y.E. (2010). “Leaders’Conceptual Complexity and Foreign Policy Change: Comparing the Bill Clinton and George W. Bush Foreign Policies toward China”. Chinese Journal of International Politics, 3(4), pp. 415–446.
Young, M.D. (2000). “Automating Assessment At-a-Distance”. The Political Psychologist, 5, pp. 17–23.
Young, M.D., Hermann, M.G. (2014). “Increased Complexity Has Its Benefits”. Political Psychology, 35, pp. 635–645.
Young, M.D., Schafer, M. (1998). “Is There Method in Our Madness? Ways of Assessing Cognition in International Relations”. Mershon International Studies Review, 42, pp. 63–96.

Informacje

Informacje: Teoria Polityki, 2022, s. 81 - 99

Typ artykułu: Oryginalny artykuł naukowy

Tytuły:

Angielski:

Investigating Leaders: Integrating the Study of Individuals in Foreign Policy Analysis and International Relations

Autorzy

Publikacja: 19.09.2022

Status artykułu: Otwarte __T_UNLOCK

Licencja: CC BY-NC-ND  ikona licencji

Udział procentowy autorów:

Marijke Breuning (Autor) - 100%

Korekty artykułu:

-

Języki publikacji:

Angielski

Liczba wyświetleń: 54

Liczba pobrań: 112